PHP 8.1.0 RC 2 available for testing


(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

array_mergeMerge one or more arrays


array_merge(array ...$arrays): array

Merges the elements of one or more arrays together so that the values of one are appended to the end of the previous one. It returns the resulting array.

If the input arrays have the same string keys, then the later value for that key will overwrite the previous one. If, however, the arrays contain numeric keys, the later value will not overwrite the original value, but will be appended.

Values in the input arrays with numeric keys will be renumbered with incrementing keys starting from zero in the result array.



Variable list of arrays to merge.

Return Values

Returns the resulting array. If called without any arguments, returns an empty array.


Version Description
7.4.0 This function can now be called without any parameter. Formerly, at least one parameter has been required.


Example #1 array_merge() example

= array("color" => "red"24);
$array2 = array("a""b""color" => "green""shape" => "trapezoid"4);
$result array_merge($array1$array2);

The above example will output:

    [color] => green
    [0] => 2
    [1] => 4
    [2] => a
    [3] => b
    [shape] => trapezoid
    [4] => 4

Example #2 Simple array_merge() example

= array();
$array2 = array(=> "data");
$result array_merge($array1$array2);

Don't forget that numeric keys will be renumbered!

    [0] => data

If you want to append array elements from the second array to the first array while not overwriting the elements from the first array and not re-indexing, use the + array union operator:

= array(=> 'zero_a'=> 'two_a'=> 'three_a');
$array2 = array(=> 'one_b'=> 'three_b'=> 'four_b');
$result $array1 $array2;

The keys from the first array will be preserved. If an array key exists in both arrays, then the element from the first array will be used and the matching key's element from the second array will be ignored.

array(5) {
  string(6) "zero_a"
  string(5) "two_a"
  string(7) "three_a"
  string(5) "one_b"
  string(6) "four_b"

Example #3 array_merge() with non-array types

$end = array(=> 'bar');
$result array_merge((array)$beginning, (array)$end);

The above example will output:

        [0] => foo
        [1] => bar

See Also

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 2 notes

Julian Egelstaff
12 years ago
In some situations, the union operator ( + ) might be more useful to you than array_merge.  The array_merge function does not preserve numeric key values.  If you need to preserve the numeric keys, then using + will do that.



[0] = "zero";
$array1[1] = "one";

$array2[1] = "one";
$array2[2] = "two";
$array2[3] = "three";

$array3 = $array1 + $array2;

//This will result in::

$array3 = array(0=>"zero", 1=>"one", 2=>"two", 3=>"three");


Note the implicit "array_unique" that gets applied as well.  In some situations where your numeric keys matter, this behaviour could be useful, and better than array_merge.

fsb at thefsb dot org
1 year ago
We no longer need array_merge() as of PHP 7.4.

    [...$a, ...$b]

does the same as

    array_merge($a, $b)

and can be faster too.
To Top