PHP Velho Oeste 2024

预定义变量

PHP 提供了大量的预定义变量。由于许多变量依赖于运行的服务器的版本和设置,及其它因素,所以并没有详细的说明文档。一些预定义变量在 PHP 以命令行形式运行时并不生效。 详细参阅预定义变量一章。

PHP 提供了一套附加的预定数组,这些数组变量包含了来自 web 服务器(如果可用),运行环境,和用户输入的数据。这些数组非常特别,它们在全局范围内自动生效,例如,在任何范围内自动生效。因此通常被称为自动全局变量(autoglobals)或者超全局变量(superglobals)。(PHP 中没有用户自定义超全局变量的机制。) 详情参阅超全局变量列表

注意: 可变变量

超级全局变量不能被用作函数或类方法中的可变变量

如果某些 variables_order 中的变量没有设定,它们的对应的 PHP 预定义数组也是空的。

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User Contributed Notes 4 notes

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113
johnphayes at gmail dot com
17 years ago
I haven't found it anywhere else in the manual, so I'll make a note of it here - PHP will automatically replace any dots ('.') in an incoming variable name with underscores ('_'). So if you have dots in your incoming variables, e.g.:

example.com/page.php?chuck.norris=nevercries

you can not reference them by the name used in the URI:
//INCORRECT
echo $_GET['chuck.norris'];

instead you must use:
//CORRECT
echo $_GET['chuck_norris'];
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11
DD32=theonly_DD32[&]yahoo.com.au
17 years ago
I have this function in my main files, it allows for easier SEO for some pages without having to rely on .htaccess and mod_rewrite for some things.
<?php
function long_to_GET(){
/**
* This function converts info.php/a/1/b/2/c?d=4 TO
* Array ( [d] => 4 [a] => 1 [b] => 2 [c] => )
**/
if(isset($_SERVER['PATH_INFO']) && $_SERVER['PATH_INFO'] != ''){
//Split it out.
$tmp = explode('/',$_SERVER['PATH_INFO']);
//Remove first empty item
unset($tmp[0]);
//Loop through and apend it into the $_GET superglobal.
for($i=1;$i<=count($tmp);$i+=2){ $_GET[$tmp[$i]] = $tmp[$i+1];}
}
}
?>

Its probably not the most efficient, but it does the job rather nicely.

DD32
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11
lopez dot on dot the dot lists at yellowspace dot net
21 years ago
- Security Issue and workaround -
If You use "eval()" to execute code stored in a database or elsewhere, you might find this tip useful.

Issue:
By default, all superglobals are known in every function.
Thus, if you eval database- or dynamically generated code (let's call it "potentially unsafe code"), it can use _all_ the values stored in _any_ superglobal.

Workaround:
Whenever you want to hide superglobals from use in evaluated code, wrap that eval() in an own function within which you unset() all the superglobals. The superglobals are not deleted by php in all scopes - just within that function. eg:

function safeEval($evalcode) {
unset($GLOBALS);
unset($_ENV);
// unset any other superglobal...
return eval($evalcode);
}

(This example assumes that the eval returns something with 'return')

In addition, by defining such a function outside classes, in the global scope, you'll make sure as well that the evaluated ('unsafe') code doesn't have access to the object variables ($this-> ...).
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1
LouisGreen at pljg dot freeserve dot co dot uk
20 years ago
It seems that when you wish to export a varible, you can do it as return $varible, return an array(), or globalise it. If you return something, information for that varible can only travel one way when the script is running, and that is out of the function.

function fn() {
$varible = "something";

return $variable;
}

echo fn();
OR
$newvariable = fn();

Although if global was used, it creates a pointer to a varible, whether it existed or not, and makes whatever is created in the function linked to that global pointer. So if the pointer was global $varible, and then you set a value to $varible, it would then be accessible in the global scope. But then what if you later on in the script redefine that global to equal something else. This means that whatever is put into the global array, the information that is set in the pointer, can be set at any point (overiden). Here is an example that might make this a little clearer:

function fn1() {

global $varible; // Pointer to the global array
$varible = "something";
}

fn1();
echo $varible; // Prints something
$varible = "12345";
echo $varible; // Prints 12345

function fn2() {

global $varible; // Pointer to the global array
echo $varible;
}

fn2(); // echos $varible which contains "12345"

Basically when accessing the global array, you can set it refer to something already defined or set it to something, (a pointer) such as varible you plan to create in the function, and later possibly over ride the pointer with something else.
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