Filtros de encriptación

Los filtros de cifrado son especialmente útiles para el cifrado de archivos y flujos.

mcrypt.* y mdecrypt.*

Advertencia

Esta característica ha sido declarada OBSOLETA a partir de PHP 7.0.1. Su uso está totalmente desaconsejado.

mcrypt.* y mdecrypt.* ofrecen encripción y desencripción simétrica usando libmcrypt. Ambos conjuntos de filtros soportan los mismos algoritmos disponibles a la extensión mcrypt en la forma de mcrypt.ciphername, en donde ciphername es el nombre del cifrado que debe ser pasado a mcrypt_module_open(). Los siguientes cinco parámetros se encuentran disponibles también:

parámetros del filtro mcrypt
Parámetro ¿Requerido? Por omisión Valores de ejemplo
mode Optional cbc cbc, cfb, ecb, nofb, ofb, stream
algorithms_dir Optional ini_get('mcrypt.algorithms_dir') Ubicación de los módulos de los algoritmos
modes_dir Optional ini_get('mcrypt.modes_dir') Ubicación de los módulos de los modos
iv Required N/A Típicamente 8, 16, o 32 bytes de datos binarios. Depende del cifrado
key Required N/A Típicamente 8, 16, o 32 bytes de datos binarios. Depende del cifrado

Ejemplo #1 Encriptar/Desencriptar con Blowfish

<?php
//$key que se supone que ha sido generado previamente
$iv_size = mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_BLOWFISH, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC);
$iv = mcrypt_create_iv($iv_size, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM);
$fp = fopen('encrypted-file.enc', 'wb');
fwrite($fp, $iv);
$opts = array('mode'=>'cbc','iv'=>$iv, 'key'=>$key);
stream_filter_append($fp, 'mcrypt.blowfish', STREAM_FILTER_WRITE, $opts);
fwrite($fp, 'message to encrypt');
fclose($fp);

//desencriptar...
$fp = fopen('encrypted-file.enc', 'rb');
$iv = fread($fp, $iv_size = mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_BLOWFISH, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC));
$opts = array('mode'=>'cbc','iv'=>$iv, 'key'=>$key)
stream_filter_append($fp, 'mdecrypt.blowfish', STREAM_FILTER_READ, $opts);
$data = rtrim(stream_get_contents($fp));//trims off null padding
fclose($fp);
echo
$data;
?>

Ejemplo #2 Encriptar el archivo usando AES-128 CBC con SHA256 HMAC en PHP 5.5+

<?php
AES_CBC
::encryptFile($password, "plaintext.txt", "encrypted.enc");
AES_CBC::decryptFile($password, "encrypted.enc", "decrypted.txt");

class
AES_CBC
{
protected static
$KEY_SIZES = array('AES-128'=>16,'AES-192'=>24,'AES-256'=>32);
protected static function
key_size() { return self::$KEY_SIZES['AES-128']; } //default AES-128
public static function encryptFile($password, $input_stream, $aes_filename){
$iv_size = mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC);
$fin = fopen($input_stream, "rb");
$fc = fopen($aes_filename, "wb+");
if (!empty(
$fin) && !empty($fc)) {
fwrite($fc, str_repeat("_", 32) );//marcador de posición, SHA256 HMAC irá aquí más tarde
fwrite($fc, $hmac_salt = mcrypt_create_iv($iv_size, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM));
fwrite($fc, $esalt = mcrypt_create_iv($iv_size, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM));
fwrite($fc, $iv = mcrypt_create_iv($iv_size, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM));
$ekey = hash_pbkdf2("sha256", $password, $esalt, $it=1000, self::key_size(), $raw=true);
$opts = array('mode'=>'cbc', 'iv'=>$iv, 'key'=>$ekey);
stream_filter_append($fc, 'mcrypt.rijndael-128', STREAM_FILTER_WRITE, $opts);
$infilesize = 0;
while (!
feof($fin)) {
$block = fread($fin, 8192);
$infilesize+=strlen($block);
fwrite($fc, $block);
}
$block_size = mcrypt_get_block_size(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC);
$padding = $block_size - ($infilesize % $block_size);//$padding es un número del 1 al 16
fwrite($fc, str_repeat(chr($padding), $padding) );//realizar el relleno de PKCS7
fclose($fin);
fclose($fc);
$hmac_raw = self::calculate_hmac_after_32bytes($password, $hmac_salt, $aes_filename);
$fc = fopen($aes_filename, "rb+");
fwrite($fc, $hmac_raw);//sobrescribir el marcador de posición
fclose($fc);
}
}
public static function
decryptFile($password, $aes_filename, $out_stream) {
$iv_size = mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC);
$hmac_raw = file_get_contents($aes_filename, false, NULL, 0, 32);
$hmac_salt = file_get_contents($aes_filename, false, NULL, 32, $iv_size);
$hmac_calc = self::calculate_hmac_after_32bytes($password, $hmac_salt, $aes_filename);
$fc = fopen($aes_filename, "rb");
$fout = fopen($out_stream, 'wb');
if (!empty(
$fout) && !empty($fc) && self::hash_equals($hmac_raw,$hmac_calc)) {
fread($fc, 32+$iv_size);//skip sha256 hmac and salt
$esalt = fread($fc, $iv_size);
$iv = fread($fc, $iv_size);
$ekey = hash_pbkdf2("sha256", $password, $esalt, $it=1000, self::key_size(), $raw=true);
$opts = array('mode'=>'cbc', 'iv'=>$iv, 'key'=>$ekey);
stream_filter_append($fc, 'mdecrypt.rijndael-128', STREAM_FILTER_READ, $opts);
while (!
feof($fc)) {
$block = fread($fc, 8192);
if (
feof($fc)) {
$padding = ord($block[strlen($block) - 1]);//asume el relleno del PKCS7
$block = substr($block, 0, 0-$padding);
}
fwrite($fout, $block);
}
fclose($fout);
fclose($fc);
}
}
private static function
hash_equals($str1, $str2) {
if(
strlen($str1) == strlen($str2)) {
$res = $str1 ^ $str2;
for(
$ret=0,$i = strlen($res) - 1; $i >= 0; $i--) $ret |= ord($res[$i]);
return !
$ret;
}
return
false;
}
private static function
calculate_hmac_after_32bytes($password, $hsalt, $filename) {
static
$init=0;
$init or $init = stream_filter_register("user-filter.skipfirst32bytes", "FileSkip32Bytes");
$stream = 'php://filter/read=user-filter.skipfirst32bytes/resource=' . $filename;
$hkey = hash_pbkdf2("sha256", $password, $hsalt, $iterations=1000, 24, $raw=true);
return
hash_hmac_file('sha256', $stream, $hkey, $raw=true);
}
}
class
FileSkip32Bytes extends php_user_filter
{
private
$skipped=0;
function
filter($in, $out, &$consumed, $closing) {
while (
$bucket = stream_bucket_make_writeable($in)) {
$outlen = $bucket->datalen;
if (
$this->skipped<32){
$outlen = min($bucket->datalen,32-$this->skipped);
$bucket->data = substr($bucket->data, $outlen);
$bucket->datalen = $bucket->datalen-$outlen;
$this->skipped+=$outlen;
}
$consumed += $outlen;
stream_bucket_append($out, $bucket);
}
return
PSFS_PASS_ON;
}
}
class
AES_128_CBC extends AES_CBC {
protected static function
key_size() { return self::$KEY_SIZES['AES-128']; }
}
class
AES_192_CBC extends AES_CBC {
protected static function
key_size() { return self::$KEY_SIZES['AES-192']; }
}
class
AES_256_CBC extends AES_CBC {
protected static function
key_size() { return self::$KEY_SIZES['AES-256']; }
}
add a note

User Contributed Notes 2 notes

up
4
Uwe Ohse
6 years ago
1) The mcrypt module has been deprecated with PHP 7.1.
What does that mean for the encryption filters?

2) deriving the IV from the secret passphrase seems wrong. This leaks information about the passphrase without need.

3) using md5() for this? Really? hash() has been available since PHP 5.1.2.

4) hashing the passphrase twice does not add any security.

5) using substr() on binary data (why, oh why, is true passed to md5()?) might lead to headaches if mbstring.func_overload is used.
up
0
Maarten Bodewes
5 years ago
The examples on this page should be destroyed with utmost urgency.

Strangely most people will fall over the use of generating the IV and 3DES key using MD5, a weak hash function, e.g. the previous note and CryptoFails blog.

http://www.cryptofails.com/post/70059608390/php-documentation-woes

A password based key derivation function should be used (bcrypt, PBKDF2).

However the use of MD-5 for key derivation however isn't that bad and if the password is strong enough (it usually isn't) then the generated DES ABC key is strong enough even now.

Using an identical IV for each password means that this function directly leaks information about the encrypted file. If the start of two encrypted files is identical then this function will directly leak information. For instance, if the routine encrypts multiple images then the JPEG header would be easily distinguished.

All in all these examples use deprecated routines (mcrypt), deprecated cryptographic functions (MD5 / DES) and then incorrectly perform the actual encryption. Enough reason to destroy them in the first place.
To Top