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PDO::exec Ejecuta una sentencia SQL y devuelve el número de filas afectadas


public PDO::exec(string $statement): int

PDO::exec() ejecuta una sentencia SQL en una única llamada a la función, devolviendo el número de filas afectadas por la sentencia.

PDO::exec() no devuelve resultados de una sentencia SELECT. Para una sentencia SELECT que sólo se necesita ejecutar una vez en el programa, se debe considerar el uso de PDO::query(). Para una sentencia que se deba ejecutar en múltiples ocasiones, preparar un objeto PDOStatement con PDO::prepare() y ejecutarlo con PDOStatement::execute().



La sentencia SQL para preparar y ejecutar.

Los datos dentro de la consulta deben ser debidamente escapados.

Valores devueltos

PDO::exec() devuelve el número de filas modificadas o borradas por la sentencia SQL ejecutada. Si no hay filas afectadas, PDO::exec() devuelve 0.


Esta función puede devolver el valor booleano false, pero también puede devolver un valor no booleano que se evalúa como false. Por favor lea la sección sobre Booleanos para más información. Use el operador === para comprobar el valor devuelto por esta función.

El siguiente ejemplo confía incorrectamente en el valor de retorno de PDO::exec(), donde en una sentencia que afecta a 0 filas resulta en una llamada a die():

->exec() or die(print_r($db->errorInfo(), true));


Ejemplo #1 Ejecutando una sentencia DELETE

Cuenta el número de filas afectadas por una sentencia DELETE sin cláusula WHERE.

= new PDO('odbc:sample''db2inst1''ibmdb2');

/* Borra todas las filas de la tabla FRUIT */
$count $dbh->exec("DELETE FROM fruit WHERE colour = 'red'");

/* Devuelve el número de filas borradas */
print("Deleted $count rows.\n");

El resultado del ejemplo sería:

Deleted 1 rows.

Ver también

  • PDO::prepare() - Prepara una sentencia para su ejecución y devuelve un objeto sentencia
  • PDO::query() - Ejecuta una sentencia SQL, devolviendo un conjunto de resultados como un objeto PDOStatement
  • PDOStatement::execute() - Ejecuta una sentencia preparada

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User Contributed Notes 8 notes

david at acz dot org
15 years ago
This function cannot be used with any queries that return results.  This includes SELECT, OPTIMIZE TABLE, etc.
soletan at toxa dot de
14 years ago
It's worth noting here, that - in addition to the hints given in docs up there - using prepare, bind and execute provides more benefits than multiply querying a statement: performance and security!

If you insert some binary data (e.g. image file) into database using INSERT INTO ... then it may boost performance of parsing your statement since it is kept small (a few bytes, only, while the image may be several MiBytes) and there is no need to escape/quote the file's binary data to become a proper string value.

And, finally and for example, if you want to get a more secure PHP application which isn't affectable by SQL injection attacks you _have to_ consider using prepare/execute on every statement containing data (like INSERTs or SELECTs with WHERE-clauses). Separating the statement code from related data using prepare, bind and execute is best method - fast and secure! You don't even need to escape/quote/format-check any data.
calin at NOSPAM dot softped dot com
5 years ago
PDO::eval() might return `false` for some statements (e.g. CREATE TABLE) even if the operation completed successfully, when using PDO_DBLIB and FreeTDS. So it is not a reliable way of testing the op status.

PDO::errorInfo() can be used to test the SQLSTATE error code for '00000' (success) and '01000' (success with warning).

function execute(PDO $conn, $sql) {
$affected = $conn->exec($sql);
    if (
$affected === false) {
$err = $conn->errorInfo();
        if (
$err[0] === '00000' || $err[0] === '01000') {

List of SQLSTATE Codes:
roberto at spadim dot com dot br
14 years ago
this function don't execute multi_query
to get it see SQLITE_EXEC comments there is an pereg function that get all queries and execute all then an return the last one
10 years ago
I spent half a day trying to work out why I could not update my sqlite3 database from apache using the PHP PDO driver. I was getting NO error messages at all.

I could connect and select data, but not modify it.

It wasn't until I added the following line:


after immediately opening the database, that I got a hint of what was happening.

filename: File3
dl_count: 100

( ! ) Warning: PDO::exec() [pdo.exec.html]: SQLSTATE[HY000]: General error: 8 attempt to write a readonly database in /www/htdocs/test/dl-counter/sqlite-readwrite-test.php on line 76
Call Stack
1  0.0086  330120  {main}( )  ../sqlite-readwrite-test.php:0
  2  0.0273  331240  PDO->exec( )  ../sqlite-readwrite-test.php:76

Affected Rows: ''

filename: File3
dl_count: 100

The problem was with the file permissions. As root I could read and write the database from the sqlite3 command line monitor. But Apache was unable to write the database.

Changed the permissions to 755 wwwrun:wwrun and it all works OK!

Thanks again :)
hungry dot rahly at gmail dot com
10 years ago
For those that want an exec that handles params like prepare/execute does.  You can simulate this with another function

class Real_PDO extends PDO {
  public function
execParams($sql, $params) {
$stm = $this->prepare($sql);
$result = false;
$stm && $stm->execute($params) ) {
$result = $stm->rowCount();
$stm->fetch(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC) ) {

Remember though, if you are doing a lot of inserts, you'll want to do it the manual way, as the prepare statement will speed up when doing multiple executes(inserts).  I use this so I can place all my SQL statements in one place, and have auto safe quoting against sql-injections.

If you are wondering about the fetch after, remember some databases can return data SELECT-like data from REMOVE/INSERTS.  In the case of PostgreSQL, you can have it return you all records that were actually removed, or have the insert return the records after the insert/post field functions, and io trigger fire, to give you normalized data.

("BLAH_INSERT", "INSERT INTO blah (id,data) VALUES(?,?)");
$pdo = new Real_PDO("connect string");
$data = array("1", "2");
$pdo->execParams(BLAH_INSERT, $data);
jon at chem dot umass dot edu
14 years ago
If you do this:

= $dbh->query("SELECT * FROM sessions                        WHERE session_id = '$p_sessID'");

$l_records = $res->fetch(PDO::FETCH_ASSOC);

$l_records ) {
// ...update session-data
$l_theQuery = "UPDATE sessions SET session_expires='$newExp', session_data='$p_sessData' WHERE session_id='$p_sessID'";
$l_stmt = $this->db->prepare($l_theQuery);

   if (
$l_stmt ) {
$l_rows = $l_stmt->execute();

You will get nothing.

But do this:


Prior to the code above, you will get this:

"PDO::prepare(): SQLSTATE[HY000]: General error: 2014 Cannot execute queries while other unbuffered queries are active. Consider using PDOStatement::fetchAll(). Alternatively, if your code is only ever going to run against mysql, you may enable query buffering by setting the PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_USE_BUFFERED_QUERY attribute."

So, instead of fetch(), use fetchAll(), it will make you less insane.

Incidentally, the INSERT statement that I was issuing, if the record that I needed to update didn't yet exist, after the initial fetch() command worked perfectly.

Changing to fetchAll() fixed it.
blah at whatevr dot com
13 years ago
You can't use it not only with SELECT statement, but any statement that might return rows. "OPTIMIZE table" is such example (returns some rows with optimization status).

If you do, PDO will lock-up with the "Cannot execute queries while other unbuffered queries are active." nonsense.
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