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else

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

经常需要在满足某个条件时执行一条语句,而在不满足该条件时执行其它语句,这正是 else 的功能。else 延伸了 if 语句,可以在 if 语句中的表达式的值为 false 时执行语句。例如以下代码在 $a 大于 $b 时显示 a is bigger than b,反之则显示 a is NOT bigger than b

<?php
if ($a > $b) {
echo
"a is greater than b";
} else {
echo
"a is NOT greater than b";
}
?>
else 语句仅在 if 以及 elseif(如果有的话)语句中的表达式的值为 false 时执行(参见 elseif)。

注意: 悬挂的 else

在多层嵌套 if-else 语句的情况下, else 总是与最近的 if 进行关联。

<?php
$a
= false;
$b = true;
if (
$a)
if (
$b)
echo
"b";
else
echo
"c";
?>
虽然存在缩进(对 PHP 来说,无关紧要), 但是 else 还是与 if ($b) 进行关联,所以以上示例不会产生任何输出。虽然可以依赖此特性,但是推荐使用花括号,避免潜在的歧义问题。

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User Contributed Notes 2 notes

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24
dormeydo at gmail dot com
16 years ago
An alternative and very useful syntax is the following one:

statement ? execute if true : execute if false

Ths is very usefull for dynamic outout inside strings, for example:

print('$a is ' . ($a > $b ? 'bigger than' : ($a == $b ? 'equal to' : 'smaler than' )) . ' $b');

This will print "$a is smaler than $b" is $b is bigger than $a, "$a is bigger than $b" if $a si bigger and "$a is equal to $b" if they are same.
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12
Caliban Darklock
19 years ago
If you're coming from another language that does not have the "elseif" construct (e.g. C++), it's important to recognise that "else if" is a nested language construct and "elseif" is a linear language construct; they may be compared in performance to a recursive loop as opposed to an iterative loop.

<?php
$limit
=1000;
for(
$idx=0;$idx<$limit;$idx++)
{
$list[]="if(false) echo \"$idx;\n\"; else"; }
$list[]=" echo \"$idx\n\";";
$space=implode(" ",$list);| // if ... else if ... else
$nospace=implode("",$list); // if ... elseif ... else
$start=array_sum(explode(" ",microtime()));
eval(
$space);
$end=array_sum(explode(" ",microtime()));
echo
$end-$start . " seconds\n";
$start=array_sum(explode(" ",microtime()));
eval(
$nospace);
$end=array_sum(explode(" ",microtime()));
echo
$end-$start . " seconds\n";
?>

This test should show that "elseif" executes in roughly two-thirds the time of "else if". (Increasing $limit will also eventually cause a parser stack overflow error, but the level where this happens is ridiculous in real world terms. Nobody normally nests if() blocks to more than a thousand levels unless they're trying to break things, which is a whole different problem.)

There is still a need for "else if", as you may have additional code to be executed unconditionally at some rung of the ladder; an "else if" construction allows this unconditional code to be elegantly inserted before or after the entire rest of the process. Consider the following elseif() ladder:

<?php
if($a) { conditional1(); }
elseif(
$b) { conditional2(); }
elseif(
$c) { conditional3(); }
elseif(
$d) { conditional4(); }
elseif(
$e) { conditional5(); }
elseif(
$f) { conditional6(); }
elseif(
$g) { conditional7(); }
elseif(
$h) { conditional8(); }
else {
conditional9(); }
?>

To insert unconditional preprocessing code for $e onward, one need only split the "elseif":

<?php
if($a) { conditional1(); }
elseif(
$b) { conditional2(); }
elseif(
$c) { conditional3(); }
elseif(
$d) { conditional4(); }
else {
....
unconditional();
....if(
$e) { conditional5(); }
....elseif(
$f) { conditional6(); }
....elseif(
$g) { conditional7(); }
....elseif(
$h) { conditional8(); }
....else {
conditional9(); }
}
?>

The alternative is to duplicate the unconditional code throughout the construct.
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