PDO::__construct

(PHP 5 >= 5.1.0, PHP 7, PECL pdo >= 0.1.0)

PDO::__construct 创建一个表示数据库连接的 PDO 实例

说明

PDO::__construct ( string $dsn [, string $username [, string $password [, array $driver_options ]]] )

创建一个表示连接到请求数据库的数据库连接 PDO 实例。

参数

dsn

数据源名称或叫做 DSN,包含了请求连接到数据库的信息。

通常,一个 DSN 由 PDO 驱动名、紧随其后的冒号、以及具体 PDO 驱动的连接语法组成。更深入的信息能从 PDO 具体驱动文档找到。

The dsn 参数支持三种不同的方式 创建一个数据库连接:

Driver invocation

dsn 包含完整的DSN。

URI invocation

dsn consists of uri: followed by a URI that defines the location of a file containing the DSN string. The URI can specify a local file or a remote URL.

uri:file:///path/to/dsnfile

Aliasing

dsn consists of a name name that maps to pdo.dsn.name in php.ini defining the DSN string.

Note:

别名必须得在 php.ini 中定义了,不能是在 .htaccesshttpd.conf 中 。

username

DSN字符串中的用户名。对于某些PDO驱动,此参数为可选项。

password

DSN字符串中的密码。对于某些PDO驱动,此参数为可选项。

driver_options

一个具体驱动的连接选项的键=>值数组。

返回值

成功则返回一个PDO对象。

错误/异常

如果试图连接到请求的数据库失败,则PDO::__construct() 抛出一个 PDO异常(PDOException) 。

范例

Example #1 Create a PDO instance via driver invocation

<?php
/* Connect to an ODBC database using driver invocation */
$dsn 'mysql:dbname=testdb;host=127.0.0.1';
$user 'dbuser';
$password 'dbpass';

try {
    
$dbh = new PDO($dsn$user$password);
} catch (
PDOException $e) {
    echo 
'Connection failed: ' $e->getMessage();
}

?>

Example #2 Create a PDO instance via URI invocation

The following example assumes that the file /usr/local/dbconnect exists with file permissions that enable PHP to read the file. The file contains the PDO DSN to connect to a DB2 database through the PDO_ODBC driver:

odbc:DSN=SAMPLE;UID=john;PWD=mypass

The PHP script can then create a database connection by simply passing the uri: parameter and pointing to the file URI:

<?php
/* Connect to an ODBC database using driver invocation */
$dsn 'uri:file:///usr/local/dbconnect';
$user '';
$password '';

try {
    
$dbh = new PDO($dsn$user$password);
} catch (
PDOException $e) {
    echo 
'Connection failed: ' $e->getMessage();
}

?>

Example #3 使用别名创建一个PDO实例

The following example assumes that php.ini contains the following entry to enable a connection to a MySQL database using only the alias mydb:

[PDO]
pdo.dsn.mydb="mysql:dbname=testdb;host=localhost"
<?php
/*  使用别名连接到一个ODBC数据库  */
$dsn 'mydb';
$user '';
$password '';

try {
    
$dbh = new PDO($dsn$user$password);
} catch (
PDOException $e) {
    echo 
'Connection failed: ' $e->getMessage();
}

?>

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User Contributed Notes 12 notes

up
133
Kiipa at live dot com
6 years ago
To get UTF-8 charset you can specify that in the DSN.

$link = new PDO("mysql:host=localhost;dbname=DB;charset=UTF8");
up
26
daviddlavier at gmail dot com
4 years ago
I'd like to point out that in PHP 7.0 in the dsn parameter you can't use 'host=localhost' to solve this you can use 'host=127.0.0.1' instead.
up
29
piotrekkr at o2 dot pl
10 years ago
To connect throught unix socket you need to use
<?php
$dsn
= 'mysql:dbname=testdb;unix_socket=/path/to/socket';
?>

You musn't specify host when using socket.
up
32
subme at interia dot pl
11 years ago
To specify a database connection port use the following DSN string

<?php
$dsn
= 'mysql:dbname=testdb;host=127.0.0.1;port=3333';
?>
up
24
Victor T.
10 years ago
If you use the UTF-8 encoding, you have to use the fourth parameter :

<?php
$db
= new PDO('mysql:host=myhost;dbname=mydb', 'login', 'password', array(PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_INIT_COMMAND => 'SET NAMES \'UTF8\''));
?>
up
14
Anonymous
7 years ago
Sqlite:

<?php
try{    
   
$pdo = new PDO('sqlite:example.db');
}catch (
PDOException $e){
     die (
'DB Error');
}
?>

If 'example.db' does not exist, no exception is thrown but the file 'example.db' is created.
up
1
Francesco Montanari
5 months ago
Most of the information in the comment here is outdated or wrong.

You do can use host=localhost to connect via socket, which is faster than TCP, so setting 127.0.0.1 is a performance loss.

To use proper utf you should use utf8mb4, for example:

$db = new PDO('mysql:host=' . DATABASE_HOST . ';dbname='. DATABASE_NAME .';charset=utf8mb4', DATABASE_USER, DATABASE_PASSWORD);
up
3
ohcc at 163 dot com
4 years ago
You will get a fatal error if you don't catch the exception threw by PDO when it fails to connect to the database server like this.

Fatal error: in xxx.php on line xx

This error neither can be handled by error handlers nor can it be erased by the @ sign, which can make your script uncontrollable.

<?php
    $db
= new pdo('mysql:host=127.0.0.1;port=3306;dbname=mysql;charset=utf8','user','password',array(
       
PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE => PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION,
    ));
?>

You should always try ... catch ...

<?php
   
try{
   
$db = new pdo('mysql:host=127.0.0.1;port=3306;dbname=mysql;charset=utf8','user','password',array(
       
PDO::ATTR_ERRMODE => PDO::ERRMODE_EXCEPTION,
    ));
    }catch(
PDOException $pe){
        echo
$pe->getMessage();
    }   
?>
up
2
berk0081 at umn dot edu
5 years ago
Although not explicitly stated, parameters in the PDO $dsn string may be case-sensitive on some platforms or drivers.

<?php
// The dbname will not be parsed with incorrect casing:
$pdo = new PDO("mysql:host=hostname;DBName=database", "user", "password");

// The correct dbname is lowercase, as displayed in the manual:
$pdo = new PDO("mysql:host=hostname;dbname=database", "user", "password");
?>
up
0
Aymeric S
1 month ago
When trying to connect to a local database, it seems "uri:file:///" is no longer needed. Just write the PDO pilot name followed by the absolute path of the file.
Example : sqlite:C:\VirtualHosts\phpliteadmin\dbs\surveillance_logeas.s3DB
up
-5
srycroft at excelsystems dot com
4 years ago
For IBM i / iSeries / AS400 DB2 connections, you can specify system naming and library lists for php_pdo modules > 1.3.3-sg2

<?php
   $pdo
= new PDO(
    
'ibm:' . $host,
    
$user,
    
$password,
     array(
      
PDO::I5_ATTR_DBC_SYS_NAMING => true,
      
PDO::I5_ATTR_DBC_LIBL => "QGPL QSYS"
    
)
   );
?>

See http://yips.idevcloud.com/wiki/index.php/XMLSERVICE/PHPPDOChangeLog
up
-14
olivernybroe at gmail dot com
4 years ago
The PDO connection is case-sensitive, this means that you cannot write
`$PDO = new PDO("MySQL:DBName=dbname;host=localhost");`
You would have to write it
`$PDO = new PDO("mysql:dbname=dbname;host=localhost");`

The difference here is that `mysql` and `dbname` is with all lower-case.

Some IDE's like PHPStorm will show a `TYPO ERROR`, at `dbname` if it's written with lower-case only, this is just to be ignored and have been reported to PHPStorm for them to fix. (Currrent version 10.0.2)
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