PHP Velho Oeste 2024

Verschlüsselungsfilter

Verschlüsselungsfilter sind besonders nützlich für die Verschlüsselung von Dateien/Streams.

mcrypt.* und mdecrypt.*

Warnung

Dieses Feature ist seit PHP 7.1.0 als DEPRECATED (veraltet) markiert. Von der Verwendung dieses Features wird dringend abgeraten.

mcrypt.* und mdecrypt.* ermöglichen mit Hilfe von libmcrypt die symmetrische Ver- und Entschlüsselung. Beide Gruppen von Filtern unterstützen die gleichen Algorithmen, die für die Erweiterung mcrypt in Form von mcrypt.ciphername zur Verfügung stehen, wobei ciphername der Name der Verschlüsselung ist, wie er auch an die Funktion mcrypt_module_open() übergeben werden würde. Die folgenden fünf Filterparameter sind ebenfalls verfügbar:

mcrypt-Filterparameter
Parameter Erforderlich? Standard Beispielwerte
mode Optional cbc cbc, cfb, ecb, nofb, ofb, stream
algorithms_dir Optional ini_get('mcrypt.algorithms_dir') Das Verzeichnis, das die Algorithmen enthält
modes_dir Optional ini_get('mcrypt.modes_dir') Das Verzeichnis, das die Modi enthält
iv Required N/A Typischerweise 8, 16 oder 32 Byte Binärdaten. Abhängig von der Verschlüsselung
key Required N/A Typischerweise 8, 16 oder 32 Byte Binärdaten. Abhängig von der Verschlüsselung

Beispiel #1 Ver- und Entschlüsselung mit Blowfish

<?php
// $key wird als zuvor generiert angenommen
$iv_size = mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_BLOWFISH, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC);
$iv = mcrypt_create_iv($iv_size, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM);
$fp = fopen('encrypted-file.enc', 'wb');
fwrite($fp, $iv);
$opts = array('mode'=>'cbc','iv'=>$iv, 'key'=>$key);
stream_filter_append($fp, 'mcrypt.blowfish', STREAM_FILTER_WRITE, $opts);
fwrite($fp, 'zu verschlüsselnede Nachricht');
fclose($fp);

// entschlüsseln...
$fp = fopen('encrypted-file.enc', 'rb');
$iv = fread($fp, $iv_size = mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_BLOWFISH, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC));
$opts = array('mode'=>'cbc','iv'=>$iv, 'key'=>$key)
stream_filter_append($fp, 'mdecrypt.blowfish', STREAM_FILTER_READ, $opts);
$data = rtrim(stream_get_contents($fp)); // entfernt das Null-Padding
fclose($fp);
echo
$data;
?>

Beispiel #2 Verschlüsseln einer Datei mit AES-128 CBC und SHA256 HMAC

<?php
AES_CBC
::encryptFile($password, "klartext.txt", "verschluesselt.enc");
AES_CBC::decryptFile($password, "verschluesselt.enc", "entschluesselt.txt");

class
AES_CBC
{
protected static
$KEY_SIZES = array('AES-128'=>16,'AES-192'=>24,'AES-256'=>32);
protected static function
key_size() { return self::$KEY_SIZES['AES-128']; } // Standard AES-128
public static function encryptFile($password, $input_stream, $aes_filename){
$iv_size = mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC);
$fin = fopen($input_stream, "rb");
$fc = fopen($aes_filename, "wb+");
if (!empty(
$fin) && !empty($fc)) {
fwrite($fc, str_repeat("_", 32) ); // Platzhalter, hier wird später SHA256 HMAC eingefügt
fwrite($fc, $hmac_salt = mcrypt_create_iv($iv_size, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM));
fwrite($fc, $esalt = mcrypt_create_iv($iv_size, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM));
fwrite($fc, $iv = mcrypt_create_iv($iv_size, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM));
$ekey = hash_pbkdf2("sha256", $password, $esalt, $it=1000, self::key_size(), $raw=true);
$opts = array('mode'=>'cbc', 'iv'=>$iv, 'key'=>$ekey);
stream_filter_append($fc, 'mcrypt.rijndael-128', STREAM_FILTER_WRITE, $opts);
$infilesize = 0;
while (!
feof($fin)) {
$block = fread($fin, 8192);
$infilesize+=strlen($block);
fwrite($fc, $block);
}
$block_size = mcrypt_get_block_size(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC);
$padding = $block_size - ($infilesize % $block_size); // $padding ist eine Zahl von 1-16
fwrite($fc, str_repeat(chr($padding), $padding) ); // PKCS7-Padding durchführen
fclose($fin);
fclose($fc);
$hmac_raw = self::calculate_hmac_after_32bytes($password, $hmac_salt, $aes_filename);
$fc = fopen($aes_filename, "rb+");
fwrite($fc, $hmac_raw); // Platzhalter überschreiben
fclose($fc);
}
}
public static function
decryptFile($password, $aes_filename, $out_stream) {
$iv_size = mcrypt_get_iv_size(MCRYPT_RIJNDAEL_128, MCRYPT_MODE_CBC);
$hmac_raw = file_get_contents($aes_filename, false, NULL, 0, 32);
$hmac_salt = file_get_contents($aes_filename, false, NULL, 32, $iv_size);
$hmac_calc = self::calculate_hmac_after_32bytes($password, $hmac_salt, $aes_filename);
$fc = fopen($aes_filename, "rb");
$fout = fopen($out_stream, 'wb');
if (!empty(
$fout) && !empty($fc) && self::hash_equals($hmac_raw,$hmac_calc)) {
fread($fc, 32+$iv_size); // sha256 hmac und salt weglassen
$esalt = fread($fc, $iv_size);
$iv = fread($fc, $iv_size);
$ekey = hash_pbkdf2("sha256", $password, $esalt, $it=1000, self::key_size(), $raw=true);
$opts = array('mode'=>'cbc', 'iv'=>$iv, 'key'=>$ekey);
stream_filter_append($fc, 'mdecrypt.rijndael-128', STREAM_FILTER_READ, $opts);
while (!
feof($fc)) {
$block = fread($fc, 8192);
if (
feof($fc)) {
$padding = ord($block[strlen($block) - 1]); // PKCS7-Padding wird angenommen
$block = substr($block, 0, 0-$padding);
}
fwrite($fout, $block);
}
fclose($fout);
fclose($fc);
}
}
private static function
hash_equals($str1, $str2) {
if(
strlen($str1) == strlen($str2)) {
$res = $str1 ^ $str2;
for(
$ret=0,$i = strlen($res) - 1; $i >= 0; $i--) $ret |= ord($res[$i]);
return !
$ret;
}
return
false;
}
private static function
calculate_hmac_after_32bytes($password, $hsalt, $filename) {
static
$init=0;
$init or $init = stream_filter_register("user-filter.skipfirst32bytes", "FileSkip32Bytes");
$stream = 'php://filter/read=user-filter.skipfirst32bytes/resource=' . $filename;
$hkey = hash_pbkdf2("sha256", $password, $hsalt, $iterations=1000, 24, $raw=true);
return
hash_hmac_file('sha256', $stream, $hkey, $raw=true);
}
}
class
FileSkip32Bytes extends php_user_filter
{
private
$skipped=0;
function
filter($in, $out, &$consumed, $closing) {
while (
$bucket = stream_bucket_make_writeable($in)) {
$outlen = $bucket->datalen;
if (
$this->skipped<32){
$outlen = min($bucket->datalen,32-$this->skipped);
$bucket->data = substr($bucket->data, $outlen);
$bucket->datalen = $bucket->datalen-$outlen;
$this->skipped+=$outlen;
}
$consumed += $outlen;
stream_bucket_append($out, $bucket);
}
return
PSFS_PASS_ON;
}
}
class
AES_128_CBC extends AES_CBC {
protected static function
key_size() { return self::$KEY_SIZES['AES-128']; }
}
class
AES_192_CBC extends AES_CBC {
protected static function
key_size() { return self::$KEY_SIZES['AES-192']; }
}
class
AES_256_CBC extends AES_CBC {
protected static function
key_size() { return self::$KEY_SIZES['AES-256']; }
}
add a note

User Contributed Notes 2 notes

up
4
Uwe Ohse
7 years ago
1) The mcrypt module has been deprecated with PHP 7.1.
What does that mean for the encryption filters?

2) deriving the IV from the secret passphrase seems wrong. This leaks information about the passphrase without need.

3) using md5() for this? Really? hash() has been available since PHP 5.1.2.

4) hashing the passphrase twice does not add any security.

5) using substr() on binary data (why, oh why, is true passed to md5()?) might lead to headaches if mbstring.func_overload is used.
up
1
Maarten Bodewes
6 years ago
The examples on this page should be destroyed with utmost urgency.

Strangely most people will fall over the use of generating the IV and 3DES key using MD5, a weak hash function, e.g. the previous note and CryptoFails blog.

http://www.cryptofails.com/post/70059608390/php-documentation-woes

A password based key derivation function should be used (bcrypt, PBKDF2).

However the use of MD-5 for key derivation however isn't that bad and if the password is strong enough (it usually isn't) then the generated DES ABC key is strong enough even now.

Using an identical IV for each password means that this function directly leaks information about the encrypted file. If the start of two encrypted files is identical then this function will directly leak information. For instance, if the routine encrypts multiple images then the JPEG header would be easily distinguished.

All in all these examples use deprecated routines (mcrypt), deprecated cryptographic functions (MD5 / DES) and then incorrectly perform the actual encryption. Enough reason to destroy them in the first place.
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