rand

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

randGenerate a random integer

Descrição

rand(): int
rand(int $min, int $max): int

If called without the optional min, max arguments rand() returns a pseudo-random integer between 0 and getrandmax(). If you want a random number between 5 and 15 (inclusive), for example, use rand(5, 15).

Cuidado

Esta função não gera valores criptograficamente seguros e não deve ser usada para propósitos criptográficos ou fins que exijam que os valores retornados sejam impossíveis de adivinhar.

Se aleatoriedade criptograficamente segura for necessária, a classe Random\Randomizer pode ser usada com o mecanismo Random\Engine\Secure. Para casos de uso simples, as funções random_int() e random_bytes() fornecem uma API conveniente e segura que é garantida pelo CSPRNG do sistema operacional.

Nota: On some platforms (such as Windows), getrandmax() is only 32767. If you require a range larger than 32767, specifying min and max will allow you to create a range larger than this, or consider using mt_rand() instead.

Nota: As of PHP 7.1.0, rand() uses the same random number generator as mt_rand(). To preserve backwards compatibility rand() allows max to be smaller than min as opposed to returning false as mt_rand().

Parâmetros

min

The lowest value to return (default: 0)

max

The highest value to return (default: getrandmax())

Valor Retornado

A pseudo random value between min (or 0) and max (or getrandmax(), inclusive).

Registro de Alterações

Versão Descrição
7.2.0 rand() has received a bug fix for a modulo bias bug. This means that sequences generated with a specific seed may differ from PHP 7.1 on 64-bit machines.
7.1.0 rand() has been made an alias of mt_rand().

Exemplos

Exemplo #1 rand() example

<?php
echo rand(), "\n";
echo
rand(), "\n";

echo
rand(5, 15), "\n";
?>

O exemplo acima produzirá algo semelhante a:

7771
22264
11

Notas

Aviso

min max range must be within the range getrandmax(). i.e. (max - min) <= getrandmax() Otherwise, rand() may return poor-quality random numbers.

Veja Também

  • srand() - Seed the random number generator
  • getrandmax() - Show largest possible random value
  • mt_rand() - Generate a random value via the Mersenne Twister Random Number Generator
  • random_int() - Get a cryptographically secure, uniformly selected integer
  • random_bytes() - Get cryptographically secure random bytes

add a note

User Contributed Notes 4 notes

up
3
play dot it at play-it dot net
11 months ago
Here is a simple base64 random string function

<?php
function random_string($length) {
$str = random_bytes($length);
$str = base64_encode($str);
$str = str_replace(["+", "/", "="], "", $str);
$str = substr($str, 0, $length);
return
$str;
}

/*
Example outputs for random_string(32)

OP0vOJEsSvr6wbgN4jIwqMMstlpMSUsl
2IHaIxD2W4VTKZuzioudbpQCALdl6Ym6
QY0eZ3QYy3OKKN6ttzbDwAwsAfkXfQ2f
jznjlPCUDbYzOTJysPP414BbdVNu4jmT
GlktgJ8JUhdH5MfQ1PHl0wnqXQlKggQs
Pb9WALM3KcGCCPBKXsPgNfy3M0Xj4aEu
AED6OTVl8aBbspdxoXvA1sT4ein8lruH
9cSbz4FhoI4qSsPZFMh0u1rWDDEgQxI2
iSBlT4K7Ad516qPXgPReSj2tii7TAK5b
DuX8HByMb2e8IdM4j49Td2JTI9Ki7o1C
*/
?>
up
3
relsqui at armory dot com
19 years ago
Don't forget, it's faster to use bitwise operations when you need a random number that's less than some power of two. For example,

<?php
rand
()&1;
// instead of
rand(0,1);
// for generating 0 or 1,

rand()&3;
// instead of
rand(0,3);
// for generating 0, 1, 2, or 3,

rand()&7;
// instead of
rand(0,7)
// for generating 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7,
?>

and so on. All you're doing there is generating a default random number (so PHP doesn't have to parse any arguments) and chopping off the piece that's useful to you (using a bitwise operation which is faster than even basic math).
up
-5
Anonymous
3 years ago
Note that the algorithm change in version 7.1.0 broke the repeatability of a random sequence initialized with a given value. For example if you have a program like:

<?php
srand
($argv[1]);
for (
$i = 0; $i < 10; $i++) {
echo
rand().PHP_EOL;
}
?>

It will will no longer produce the same results after version 7.1.0. This can be very important for some kinds of simulations. Hopefully you were using mt_rand() or something better all along, otherwise you will have some digging to do if you want your program to be able to repeat simulations from the pre-7.1.0 days... You will need to look in the PHP source archives to discover the algorithm they used to use and replicate it in your program.
up
-11
Anonymous
13 years ago
Generate a random 5 character A-Z0-9 string

<?php
for ($i=0; $i<6; $i++) {
$d=rand(1,30)%2;
echo
$d ? chr(rand(65,90)) : chr(rand(48,57));
}
?>

# php -r 'for ($i=0; $i<6; $i++) { $d=rand(1,30)%2; echo $d ? chr(rand(65,90)) : chr(rand(48,57)); } echo "\n";'
14BW1A
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