Inteiros

Um inteiro é um número do conjunto ℤ = {..., -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ...}.

Veja também:

Sintaxe

Inteiros podem ser especificados em notação decimal (base 10), hexadecimal (base 16), octal (base 8) ou binária (base 2). O operador de negação pode ser usado para indicar um inteiro negativo.

Inteiros binários literais estão disponíveis a partir do PHP 5.4.0.

Para usar a notação octal, preceda o número com um 0 (zero). Para utilizar a notação hexadecimal, preceda o número com 0x. Para utilizar a notação binária, preceda o número com 0b.

A partir do PHP 7.4.0, inteiros literais podem conter sublinhados (_) entre os dígitos, para melhorar a sua leitura. Estes sublinhados serão removidos pelo scanner do PHP.

Exemplo #1 Literais inteiras

<?php
$a 
1234// número decimal
$a 0123// número octal (equivalente a 83 em decimal)
$a 0x1A// número hexadecimal (equivalente a 26 em decimal)
$a 0b11111111// número binário (equivalente ao 255 decimal)
$a 1_234_567// número decimal (a partir do PHP 7.4.0)
?>

Formalmente, as estruturas para inteiros literais são a partir do PHP 7.4.0 (anteriormente, sublinhados não eram permitidos):

decimal     : [1-9][0-9]*(_[0-9]+)*
            | 0

hexadecimal : 0[xX][0-9a-fA-F]+(_[0-9a-fA-F]+)*

octal       : 0[0-7]+(_[0-7]+)*

binary      : 0[bB][01]+(_[01]+)*

integer     : decimal
            | hexadecimal
            | octal
            | binary

O tamanho de um inteiro depende da plataforma, sendo um número aproximado a 2 bilhões o valor mais comum (número de 32 bits com sinal). Plataformas 64-bit possuem comumente o valor máximo de aproximadamente 9E18, exceto no Windows em versões anteriores ao PHP 7, onde são sempre 32-bit. O PHP não suporta inteiros sem sinal. O tamanho do inteiro pode ser determinado pela constante PHP_INT_SIZE, e seu o valor máximo com a constante PHP_INT_MAX, a partir do PHP 5.0.5, e o valor mínimo utilizando a constante PHP_INT_MIN a partir do PHP 7.0.0.

Aviso

Em versões anteriores ao PHP 7, se um dígito inválido é passado para um inteiro octal (por exemplo, 8 ou 9), o resto do número será ignorado. A partir do PHP 7, um erro de interpretação é emitido.

Overflow de inteiros

Se o PHP encontrar um número além dos limites do tipo inteiro, ele será interpretado como um ponto flutuante. Assim, uma operação que resulte em um número além dos limites do tipo inteiro, retornará um ponto flutuante.

Exemplo #2 Overflow de inteiros em sistemas 32-bit

<?php
$large_number 
2147483647;
var_dump($large_number);                     // int(2147483647)

$large_number 2147483648;
var_dump($large_number);                     // float(2147483648)

$million 1000000;
$large_number =  50000 $million;
var_dump($large_number);                     // float(50000000000)
?>

Exemplo #3 Overflow de inteiros em sistemas 64-bit

<?php
$large_number 
9223372036854775807;
var_dump($large_number);                     // int(9223372036854775807)

$large_number 9223372036854775808;
var_dump($large_number);                     // float(9.2233720368548E+18)

$million 1000000;
$large_number =  50000000000000 $million;
var_dump($large_number);                     // float(5.0E+19)
?>

Não há um operador de divisão que resulta em um inteiro no PHP. 1/2 retorna o ponto flutuante 0.5. O valor pode ser convertido para inteiro para sempre truncar o número, ou usar a função round() que provê um fino controle sobre o arredondamento.

Nota: A partir do PHP 7.0.0, a função intdiv() está disponível para uma divisão inteira.

<?php
var_dump
(25/7);         // float(3.5714285714286)
var_dump((int) (25/7)); // int(3)
var_dump(round(25/7));  // float(4)
?>

Convertendo para inteiro

Para converter explicitamente um valor para inteiro, utiliza-se um dos modificadores (int) ou (integer). Entretanto, na maioria dos casos, o modificador não é necessário, já que o valor será automaticamente convertido se um operador, função ou estrutura de controle requerer um inteiro como argumento. Um valor também pode ser convertido para inteiro utilizando a função intval().

Se um recurso for convertido para um inteiro, resultará no número único do recurso, atribuído ao recurso pelo PHP em tempo de execução.

Veja também Manipulação de tipos.

De booleanos

false será retornado como 0 (zero), e true retornará 1 (um).

De números de ponto flutuante

Conversão de números de ponto flutuante para inteiros, fará o número ser truncado.

Se o número convertido estiver além dos limites de um inteiro (geralmente +/- 2.15e+9 = 2^31 em plataformas 32 bit e +/- 9.22e+18 = 2^63 em plataformas 64-bit que não sejam Windows), o resultado é indefinido, porque o ponto flutuante não possui precisão suficiente para fornecer um resultado inteiro exato. Não se preocupe, pois nenhum aviso será emitido se isso acontecer!

Nota:

A partir do PHP 7.0.0, em vez de ser um valor indefinido e que varia de acordo com a plataforma, NaN e Infinity sempre serão zero quando convertidos para inteiro.

Aviso

Nunca modifique uma fração desconhecida para inteiro, porque isto pode, as vezes, fornecer resultados inesperados.

<?php
echo (int) ( (0.1+0.7) * 10 ); // imprime 7!
?>

Veja também o alerta sobre a precisão de número flutuante.

De NULL

null é sempre convertido em zero (0).

De outros tipos

Cuidado

O comportamento da conversão de um inteiro é desconhecido para outros tipos. Não confie em nenhum comportamento observado, pois ele pode mudar sem aviso.

add a note

User Contributed Notes 19 notes

up
120
php at richardneill dot org
9 years ago
A leading zero in a numeric literal means "this is octal". But don't be confused: a leading zero in a string does not. Thus:
$x = 0123;          // 83
$y = "0123" + 0     // 123
up
50
d_n at NOSPAM dot Loryx dot com
15 years ago
Here are some tricks to convert from a "dotted" IP address to a LONG int, and backwards. This is very useful because accessing an IP addy in a database table is very much faster if it's stored as a BIGINT rather than in characters.

IP to BIGINT:
<?php
  $ipArr   
= explode('.',$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']);
 
$ip       = $ipArr[0] * 0x1000000
           
+ $ipArr[1] * 0x10000
           
+ $ipArr[2] * 0x100
           
+ $ipArr[3]
            ;
?>

IP as BIGINT read from db back to dotted form:

Keep in mind, PHP integer operators are INTEGER -- not long. Also, since there is no integer divide in PHP, we save a couple of S-L-O-W floor (<division>)'s by doing bitshifts. We must use floor(/) for $ipArr[0] because though $ipVal is stored as a long value, $ipVal >> 24 will operate on a truncated, integer value of $ipVal! $ipVint is, however, a nice integer, so
we can enjoy the bitshifts.

<?php
        $ipVal
= $row['client_IP'];
       
$ipArr = array(0 =>
                   
floor$ipVal               / 0x1000000) );
       
$ipVint   = $ipVal-($ipArr[0]*0x1000000); // for clarity
       
$ipArr[1] = ($ipVint & 0xFF0000)  >> 16;
       
$ipArr[2] = ($ipVint & 0xFF00  )  >> 8;
       
$ipArr[3] =  $ipVint & 0xFF;
       
$ipDotted = implode('.', $ipArr);
?>
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17
dhairya lakhera
4 years ago
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Question :
var_dump((int) 010);  //Output 8

var_dump((int) "010"); //output 10

First one is octal notation so the output is correct. But what about the when converting "010" to integer. it should be also output 8 ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Answer :

Casting to an integer using (int) will always cast to the default base, which is 10.

Casting a string to a number this way does not take into account the many ways of formatting an integer value in PHP (leading zero for base 8, leading "0x" for base 16, leading "0b" for base 2). It will simply look at the first characters in a string and convert them to a base 10 integer. Leading zeroes will be stripped off because they have no meaning in numerical values, so you will end up with the decimal value 10 for (int)"010".

Converting an integer value between bases using (int)010 will take into account the various ways of formatting an integer. A leading zero like in 010 means the number is in octal notation, using (int)010 will convert it to the decimal value 8 in base 10.

This is similar to how you use 0x10 to write in hexadecimal (base 16) notation. Using (int)0x10 will convert that to the base 10 decimal value 16, whereas using (int)"0x10" will end up with the decimal value 0: since the "x" is not a numerical value, anything after that will be ignored.

If you want to interpret the string "010" as an octal value, you need to instruct PHP to do so. intval("010", 8) will interpret the number in base 8 instead of the default base 10, and you will end up with the decimal value 8. You could also use octdec("010") to convert the octal string to the decimal value 8. Another option is to use base_convert("010", 8, 10) to explicitly convert the number "010" from base 8 to base 10, however this function will return the string "8" instead of the integer 8.

Casting a string to an integer follows the same the logic used by the intval function:

Returns the integer value of var, using the specified base for the conversion (the default is base 10).
intval allows specifying a different base as the second argument, whereas a straight cast operation does not, so using (int) will always treat a string as being in base 10.

php > var_export((int) "010");
10
php > var_export(intval("010"));
10
php > var_export(intval("010", 8));
8
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15
egwayjen at gmail dot com
4 years ago
"There is no integer division operator in PHP". But since PHP 7, there is the intdiv function.
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5
ganlvtech at qq dot com
2 years ago
Be aware of float to int cast overflow

<?php

// You may expected these
var_dump(0x7fffffffffffffff);                // int(9223372036854775807)
var_dump(0x7fffffffffffffff + 1);            // float(9.2233720368548E+18)
var_dump((int)(0x7fffffffffffffff + 1));     // int(9223372036854775807)
var_dump(0x7fffffffffffffff + 1 > 0);        // bool(true)
var_dump((int)(0x7fffffffffffffff + 1) > 0); // bool(true)
var_dump((int)'9223372036854775807');        // int(9223372036854775807)
var_dump(9223372036854775808);               // float(9.2233720368548E+18)
var_dump((int)'9223372036854775808');        // int(9223372036854775807)
var_dump((int)9223372036854775808);          // int(9223372036854775807)

// But actually, it likes these
var_dump(0x7fffffffffffffff);                // int(9223372036854775807)
var_dump(0x7fffffffffffffff + 1);            // float(9.2233720368548E+18)
var_dump((int)(0x7fffffffffffffff + 1));     // int(-9223372036854775808)   <-----
var_dump(0x7fffffffffffffff + 1 > 0);        // bool(true)
var_dump((int)(0x7fffffffffffffff + 1) > 0); // bool(false)                 <-----
var_dump((int)'9223372036854775807');        // int(9223372036854775807)
var_dump(9223372036854775808);               // float(9.2233720368548E+18)
var_dump((int)'9223372036854775808');        // int(9223372036854775807)
var_dump((int)9223372036854775808);          // int(-9223372036854775808)   <-----

?>

These overflows are dangerous when you try to compare it with zero, or substract it from another value (e.g. money).
up
14
rustamabd@gmail-you-know-what
15 years ago
Be careful with using the modulo operation on big numbers, it will cast a float argument to an int and may return wrong results. For example:
<?php
    $i
= 6887129852;
    echo
"i=$i\n";
    echo
"i%36=".($i%36)."\n";
    echo
"alternative i%36=".($i-floor($i/36)*36)."\n";
?>
Will output:
i=6.88713E+009
i%36=-24
alternative i%36=20
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8
Anonymous
7 years ago
Converting to an integer works only if the input begins with a number
(int) "5txt" // will output the integer 5
(int) "before5txt" // will output the integer 0
(int) "53txt" // will output the integer 53
(int) "53txt534text" // will output the integer 53
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5
litbai
6 years ago
<?php
$ipArr
= explode('.', $ipString);
$ipVal = ($ipArr[0] << 24)
       + (
$ipArr[1] << 16)
       + (
$ipArr[2] << 8)
       +
$ipArr[3]
        ;
?>
1. the priority of bit op is lower than '+',so there should be brackets.
2. there is no unsighed int in PHP, if you use 32 bit version,the code above will get negative result when the first position of IP string greater than 127.
3. what the code actually do is calculate the integer value of transformed 32 binary bit from IP string.
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9
Anonymous
15 years ago
To force the correct usage of 32-bit unsigned integer in some functions, just add '+0'  just before processing them.

for example
echo(dechex("2724838310"));
will print '7FFFFFFF'
but it should print 'A269BBA6'

When adding '+0' php will handle the 32bit unsigned integer
correctly
echo(dechex("2724838310"+0));
will print 'A269BBA6'
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10
Anonymous
18 years ago
Sometimes you need to parse an unsigned
32 bit integer. Here's a function I 've used:
                                                                               
    function parse_unsigned_int($string) {
        $x = (float)$string;
        if ($x > (float)2147483647)
            $x -= (float)"4294967296";
        return (int)$x;
    }
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5
darkshire
14 years ago
d_n at NOSPAM dot Loryx dot com
13-Aug-2007 05:33
Here are some tricks to convert from a "dotted" IP address to a LONG int, and backwards. This is very useful because accessing an IP addy in a database table is very much faster if it's stored as a BIGINT rather than in characters.

IP to BIGINT:
<?php
  $ipArr   
= explode('.',$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']);
 
$ip       = $ipArr[0] * 0x1000000
           
+ $ipArr[1] * 0x10000
           
+ $ipArr[2] * 0x100
           
+ $ipArr[3]
            ;
?>

This can be written in a bit more efficient way:
<?php
  $ipArr   
= explode('.',$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']);
 
$ip       = $ipArr[0]<<24
           
+ $ipArr[1]<<16
           
+ $ipArr[2] <<8
           
+ $ipArr[3]
            ;
?>

shift is more cheaper.
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0
kuzawinski dot marcin_NOSPAM at gmail dot com
2 years ago
Integer literals may be decimal, octal, hexadecimal or binary, but integer values have single representation;

<?php

var_dump
(010); // int(8) NOT int(010)
var_dump(0x10); // int(16) NOT int(0x10)
var_dump(0b10); // int(2) NOT int(0b10)

?>

This is the reason why casting integer to string gives us always a decimal:

<?php

var_dump
((string) 010); // string(8) NOT string(010)
var_dump((string) 0x10); // string(16) NOT string(0x10)
var_dump((string) 0b10); // string(2) NOT string(0b10)

?>
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1
Jacek
15 years ago
On 64 bits machines max integer value is 0x7fffffffffffffff (9 223 372 036 854 775 807).
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-12
eric
14 years ago
In response to the comment by me at troyswanson dot net:

-2147483648 falls into the range of 32 bit signed integers yet php treats it as a float.  However, -2147483647-1 is treated as an integer.

The following code demonstrates:
<?php
    var_dump
(-2147483648); //float(-2147483648)
   
var_dump(-2147483647 - 1); //int(-2147483648)
?>

This is probably very similar to the MS C bug which also treats -2147483648 as an UNSIGNED because it thinks it's out of the range of a signed int.

The problem is that the parser does not view "-x" as a single token, but rather as two, "-" and "x".  Since "x" is out of the range of an INT, it is promoted to float, even though in this unique case, "-x" is in the range of an int.

The best cure is probably to replace "-2147483648" with "0x80000000", as that is the hexadecimal equivalent of the same number.

Hope that helps explain what's going on

Peace

- Eric / fez
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-14
pere dot cil at wanadoo dot fr
11 years ago
Please also note that the maximum stored in the integer depends on the platform / compilation; on windows xp 32 bits, the following value:

0x5468792130ABCDEF

echoes to:

6.0822444802213E+18 (cast to float)

On a fully 64 bits system, it echoes to:

6082244480221302255
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-15
wbcarts at juno dot com
13 years ago
PHP offers a slew of built-in functions and automatic type-casting routines which can get pretty complicated. But most of the time, you still have to take matters into your own hands and allow PHP to do its thing. In that case, and something that has NOT been mentioned, is how to construct your code. To keep things simple, I divide all my scripts in half. The top half gives my scripts the "capability" they need, and the lower half is the actual code to be "run" or "executed".

<?php
/*
* build the program's capability - define variables and functions...
*/
$item_label = '';        // type string
$item_price = 0.0;       // type float
$item_qty = 1;           // type integer
$item_total = 0.0;       // type float - to set use calculate()

function calculate(){
  global
$item_price, $item_qty, $item_total;
 
$item_price = number_format($item_price, 2);
 
$item_total = number_format(($item_price * $item_qty), 2);
}

function
itemToString() {
  global
$item_label, $item_price, $item_qty, $item_total;
  return
"$item_label [price=\$$item_price, qty=$item_qty, total=\$$item_total]";
}

/*
* run the program - set data, call methods...
*/
$item_label = "Coffee";
$item_price = 3.89;
$item_qty = 2;
calculate();           // set $item_total
echo itemToString();   // -> Coffee [price=$3.89, qty=2, total=$7.78]

$item_label = "Chicken";
$item_price = .80;     // per lb.
$item_qty = 3.5;       // lbs.
calculate();           // set $item_total
echo itemToString();   // -> Chicken [price=$0.80, qty=3.5, total=$2.80]
?>
Note: All type-casting is done by PHP's built-in number_format() method. This allows our program to enter any number (float or int) on item price or quantity in the runtime part of our script. Also, if we explicitly cast values to integer in the capability part of our script, then we start getting results that may not be desirable for this program. For example, if in the calculate method we cast item_qty to integer, then we can no longer sell chicken by the pound!
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-9
13453814063 at 163 dot com
4 years ago
$e = 0x8000000000000000;
$e2 = 0b1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000;
if ($e == $e2){
    echo "e==e2<br>";
}else{
    echo "e!=e2<br>";
}
pirnt "e!=e2"
----------------------------
echo decbin($e) . "<br>";
echo decbin($e2) . "<br>";
the result is :
1000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111110000000000
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-13
dewi at dewimorgan dot com
7 years ago
Note that the soft-typing of numbers in PHP means that some things become very difficult. For example, efficiently emulating the more common linear congruential generators (LCGs) for fast, deterministic, pseudo-randomness. The naive code to create the next value in a sequence (for power-of-2 values of $m) is:

$seed = ($seed * $a + $c) % $m;

...where $m, $a, and $c are values and data types carefully chosen such that repeating this operation will eventually generate every value in the range $0 to $m, with no repetition.

I can find no good commonly used LCGs which use PHP-compatible values. The LCG values used in by rand() in systems like Borland Delphi, Virtual Pascal, MS Visual/Quick C/C++, VMS's MTH$RANDOM, old versions of glibc, Numerical Recipes, glibc, GCC, ANSI C, Watcom, Digital Mars, CodeWarrior, IBM VisualAge C/C++, java.util.Random, Newlib, MMX... *all* fail when ported, for one of two reasons, and sometimes both:

- In PHP on 32 bit machines and all Windows machines, $m = 2^32 or larger requires UInt or even UInt64, or the result becomes negative.

- Large $a multiplied by an integer seed gets converted to a float64, but the number can be too long for the 53-bit mantissa, and it drops the least significant digits... but the LCG code above requires that the most significant digits should be lost.

These are two classes of problem to beware of when porting integer math to PHP,  and I see no clean and efficient way to avoid either one.

So if designing a cross-platform system that must work in PHP, you must select LCG values that fit the following criteria:
$m = 2^31 or less (PHP limitation). Recommend: 2^31.
$a = Less than 2^22 (PHP limitation); $a-1 divisible by all prime factors of $m; $a-1 divisible by 4 if $m is. Recommend: 1+(4*(any prime <= 1048573)).
$c = smaller than (2^53-($m*$a)) (PHP limitation); relatively prime with $m. Recommend: any prime <= 23622320123.
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-25
jmw254 at cornell dot edu
15 years ago
Try this one instead:

function iplongtostring($ip)
{
    $ip=floatval($ip); // otherwise it is capped at 127.255.255.255

    $a=($ip>>24)&255;
    $b=($ip>>16)&255;
    $c=($ip>>8)&255;
    $d=$ip&255;

    return "$a.$b.$c.$d";
}
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