php[world] 2019 — 25 years of PHP

ob_start

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7)

ob_startВключение буферизации вывода

Описание

ob_start ([ callable $output_callback = NULL [, int $chunk_size = 0 [, int $flags = PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_STDFLAGS ]]] ) : bool

Эта функция включает буферизацию вывода. Если буферизация вывода активна, никакой вывод скрипта не отправляется (кроме заголовков), а сохраняется во внутреннем буфере.

Содержимое этого внутреннего буфера может быть скопировано в строковую переменную, используя ob_get_contents(). Для вывода содержимого внутреннего буфера следует использовать ob_end_flush(). В качестве альтернативы можно использовать ob_end_clean() для очистки содержимого буфера.

Внимание

Некоторые веб-серверы (например, Apache) изменяют рабочую директорию скрипта при вызове callback-функции. Вы можете вернуть ее назад, используя chdir(dirname($_SERVER['SCRIPT_FILENAME'])) в callback-функции.

Буферы вывода помещаются в стек, то есть допускается вызов ob_start() после вызова другой активной ob_start(). При этом необходимо вызывать ob_end_flush() соответствующее количество раз. Если активны несколько callback-функций, вывод последовательно фильтруется для каждой из них в порядке вложения.

Список параметров

output_callback

Можно задать необязательный параметр output_callback. Эта функция принимает строку в виде аргумента и должна также вернуть строку. Она вызывается при сбросе (отправке) или очистке (с помощью ob_flush(), ob_clean() или подобных функций) или если буфер вывода сбрасывается в браузер по окончанию запроса. При вызове функции output_callback, она получает содержимое буфера и, как ожидается, должна вернуть обновленное содержимое для буфера вывода, которое будет отправлено браузеру. Если output_callback не является допустимой функцией, то эта функция вернет FALSE. Описание функции для этого параметра:

handler ( string $buffer [, int $phase ] ) : string
buffer
Содержимое буфера вывода.
phase
Битовая маска констант PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_*.

Если output_callback вернет FALSE, то оригинальная информация отправится в браузер без изменений.

Параметр output_callback может быть игнорирован передачей значения NULL.

ob_end_clean(), ob_end_flush(), ob_clean(), ob_flush() и ob_start() не могут вызываться из callback-функций, так как их поведение непредсказуемо. Если вы хотите удалить содержимое буфера, то верните "" (пустую строку) из callback-функции. Вы также не можете использовать функции буферизации вывода, такие как print_r($expression, true) или highlight_file($filename, true) из callback-функции.

Замечание:

Функция ob_gzhandler() была введена для облегчения отправки gz-кодированных данных браузерам, поддерживающим сжатые веб-страницы. ob_gzhandler() определяет тип кодировки содержимого, принимаемый браузером, и возвращает вывод соответствующим образом.

chunk_size

Если передан необязательный параметр chunk_size, то буфер буден сброшен после любого вывода, превышающего или равного по размеру chunk_size. Значение по умолчанию 0 означает, что функция вывода будет вызвана, когда буфер будет закрыт.

До PHP 5.4.0, значение 1 было специальным значением, которое устанавливало параметр chunk_size в 4096.

flags

Параметр flags является битовой маской, которая управляет операциями, которые можно совершать над буфером вывода. По умолчанию она позволяет буферу вывода быть очищенным, сброшенным и удаленным, что равносильно значению PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CLEANABLE | PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_FLUSHABLE | PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_REMOVABLE или PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_STDFLAGS как сокращение этой комбинации.

Каждый флаг управляет доступом к набору функций, как описано ниже:

Константа Функции
PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CLEANABLE ob_clean(), ob_end_clean() и ob_get_clean().
PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_FLUSHABLE ob_end_flush(), ob_flush() и ob_get_flush().
PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_REMOVABLE ob_end_clean(), ob_end_flush() и ob_get_flush().

Возвращаемые значения

Возвращает TRUE в случае успешного завершения или FALSE в случае возникновения ошибки.

Список изменений

Версия Описание
7.0.0 В случае, если ob_start() используется внутри callback-функции буфера вывода, эта функция больше не будет приводить к ошибке E_ERROR, а вместо этого будет вызывать E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR, позволяя сторонним обработчикам ошибок поймать ее.
5.4.0 Третий параметр ob_start() изменен с логического (boolean) параметра erase (который при установке в FALSE предотвращал удаление буфера до тех пор, пока не завершалась работа скрипта) на целочисленный (integer) параметр flags. К сожалению, это означает появление несовместимости API для кода, который использовал третий параметр до версии PHP 5.4.0. Смотрите пример с флагами, чтобы понять как работать с кодом, чтобы он поддерживал совместимость с обеими версиями.
5.4.0 Параметр chunk_size, установленный в 1, теперь приводит к выводу по 1 байту в выходной буфер.

Примеры

Пример #1 Пример callback-функции, определенной пользователем

<?php

function callback($buffer)
{
  
// заменить все яблоки апельсинами
  
return (str_replace("яблоки""апельсины"$buffer));
}

ob_start("callback");

?>
<html>
<body>
<p>Это все равно что сравнить яблоки и апельсины.</p>
</body>
</html>
<?php

ob_end_flush
();

?>

Результат выполнения данного примера:

<html>
<body>
<p>Это все равно что сравнить апельсины и апельсины.</p>
</body>
</html>

Пример #2 Создание нестираемого буфера вывода с совместимостью с версиями PHP 5.3 и 5.4

<?php

if (version_compare(PHP_VERSION'5.4.0''>=')) {
  
ob_start(null0PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_STDFLAGS ^
    
PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_REMOVABLE);
} else {
  
ob_start(null0false);
}

?>

Смотрите также

  • ob_get_contents() - Возвращает содержимое буфера вывода
  • ob_end_clean() - Очистить (стереть) буфер вывода и отключить буферизацию вывода
  • ob_end_flush() - Сбросить (отправить) буфер вывод и отключить буферизацию вывода
  • ob_implicit_flush() - Включение/выключение неявного сброса
  • ob_gzhandler() - callback-функция, используемая для gzip-сжатия буфера вывода при вызове ob_start
  • ob_iconv_handler() - Преобразует символы из текущей кодировки в кодировку выходного буфера
  • mb_output_handler() - Callback-функция, преобразующая кодировку символов в выходном буфере
  • ob_tidyhandler() - Функция обратного вызова ob_start для восстановление буфера

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 42 notes

up
47
php at bucksvsbytes dot com
13 years ago
The following should be added: "If outbut buffering is still active when the script ends, PHP outputs it automatically. In effect, every script ends with ob_end_flush()."
up
44
Ray Paseur (Paseur ... ImagineDB.com)
14 years ago
You can use PHP to generate a static HTML page.  Useful if you have a complex script that, for performance reasons, you do not want site visitors to run repeatedly on demand.  A "cron" job can execute the PHP script to create the HTML page.  For example:

<?php // CREATE index.html
  
ob_start();
/* PERFORM COMLEX QUERY, ECHO RESULTS, ETC. */
  
$page = ob_get_contents();
  
ob_end_clean();
  
$cwd = getcwd();
  
$file = "$cwd" .'/'. "index.html";
   @
chmod($file,0755);
  
$fw = fopen($file, "w");
  
fputs($fw,$page, strlen($page));
  
fclose($fw);
   die();
?>
up
17
mjr
15 years ago
If you're using object-orientated code in PHP you may, like me, want to use a call-back function that is inside an object (i.e. a class function). In this case you send ob_start a two-element array as its single argument. The first element is the name of the object (without the $ at the start), and the second is the function to call. So to use a function 'indent' in an object called '$template' you would use <?php ob_start(array('template', 'indent')); ?>.
up
5
ernest at vogelsinger dot at
13 years ago
When you rely on URL rewriting to pass the PHP session ID you should be careful with ob_get_contents(), as this might disable URL rewriting completely.

Example:
ob_start();
session_start();
echo '<a href=".">self link</a>';
$data = ob_get_contents();
ob_end_clean();
echo $data;

In the example above, URL rewriting will never occur. In fact, rewriting would occur if you ended the buffering envelope using ob_end_flush(). It seems to me that rewriting occurs in the very same buffering envelope where the session gets started, not at the final output stage.

If you need a scenario like the one above, using an "inner envelope" will help:

ob_start();
ob_start();   // add the inner buffering envelope
session_start();
echo '<a href=".">self link</a>';
ob_end_flush(); // closing the inner envelope will activate URL rewriting
$data = ob_get_contents();
ob_end_clean();
echo $data;

In case you're interested or believe like me that this is rather a design flaw instead of a feature, please visit bug #35933 (http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=35933) and comment on it.
up
8
mchojrin at gmail dot com
7 years ago
Just a word of warning to those like myself who are upgrading from 5.3. I have a piece of code that used to work:

<?php
if ( !ob_start( !DEBUGMODE ? 'ob_gzhandler' : '' ) ) {
   
ob_start();
}
?>

Which is not working anymore (I get an error like: Warning: ob_start(): function '' not found or invalid function name).

It's easily fixed though, just changed the '' to a null, like this:

<?php
if ( !ob_start( !DEBUGMODE ? 'ob_gzhandler' : null ) ) {
   
ob_start();
}       
?>

Which preserves the code intention but works :)
up
6
ed.oohay (a) suamhcs_rodnan
15 years ago
Output Buffering even works in nested scopes or might be applied in recursive structures... thought this might save someone a little time guessing and testing :)

<pre><?php
   
    ob_start
();              // start output buffer 1
   
echo "a";                // fill ob1
       
       
ob_start();              // start output buffer 2
       
echo "b";                // fill ob2
       
$s1 = ob_get_contents(); // read ob2 ("b")
       
ob_end_flush();          // flush ob2 to ob1
       
   
echo "c";                // continue filling ob1
   
$s2 = ob_get_contents(); // read ob1 ("a" . "b" . "c")
   
ob_end_flush();          // flush ob1 to browser
   
    // echoes "b" followed by "abc", as supposed to:
   
echo "<HR>$s1<HR>$s2<HR>";
   
?></pre>

... at least works on Apache 1.3.28

Nandor =)
up
4
dan at roteloftet dot com
11 years ago
Some web hosting servers (mine do, at least) have in their php.ini the following setting:
output_handler = ob_gzhandler

This proved problematic for php-scripts which returns an image or a binary file in general, since there is no way to determine the content length of the compressed file.

Since I spent a lot of time scouring the net searching for a work-around (.htaccess-modifications were out of the picture for various reasons), I found this to work nicely to cancel out the ob_gzhandler specified in the php.ini:

<?php
while (ob_get_level())
       
ob_end_clean();
header("Content-Encoding: None", true);
?>

Put this at the top of the script before anything else is written to the page, and the script result will not be compressed.
up
4
Asher Haig (ahaig at ridiculouspower dot com)
11 years ago
When a script ends, all buffered output is flushed (this is not a bug: http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=42334&thanks=4). What happens when the script throws an error (and thus ends) in the middle of an output buffer? The script spits out everything in the buffer before printing the error!

Here is the simplest solution I have been able to find. Put it at the beginning of the error handling function to clear all buffered data and print only the error:

$handlers = ob_list_handlers();
while ( ! empty($handlers) )    {
    ob_end_clean();
    $handlers = ob_list_handlers();
}
up
3
Francois Hill
11 years ago
Following clement dot ayme at st dot com 's remark :

In my experience it seems that the output IS buffered, but ALSO sent to the standard output !
up
2
geoffrey at nevra dot net
13 years ago
When using a callback with ob_start(), functions like ob_get_contents() don't make use of it, use ob_end_flush() instead.

nb: not tested with every ob_* functions, just ob_get_contents() and ob_end_flush()
up
6
Chris
8 years ago
Careful with while using functions that change headers of a page; that change will not be undone when ending output buffering.

If you for instance have a class that generates an image and sets the appropriate headers, they will still be in place after the end of ob.

For instance:
<?php
  ob_start
();
 
myClass::renderPng(); //header("Content-Type: image/png"); in here
 
$pngString = ob_get_contents();
 
ob_end_clean();
?>

will put the image bytes into $pngString, and set the content type to image/png. Though the image will not be sent to the client, the png header is still in place; if you do html output here, the browser will most likely display "image error, cannot be viewed", at least firefox does.

You need to set the correct image type (text/html) manually in this case.
up
1
net_navard at yahoo dot com
13 years ago
Hello firends

ob_start() opens a buffer in which all output is stored. So every time you do an echo, the output of that is added to the buffer. When the script finishes running, or you call ob_flush(), that stored output is sent to the browser (and gzipped first if you use ob_gzhandler, which means it downloads faster).

The most common reason to use ob_start is as a way to collect data that would otherwise be sent to the browser.

These are two usages of ob_start():

1-Well, you have more control over the output. Trivial example: say you want to show the user an error message, but the script has already sent some HTML to the browser. It'll look ugly, with a half-rendered page and then an error message. Using the output buffering functions, you can simply delete the buffer and sebuffer and send only the error message, which means it looks all nice and neat buffer and send
2-The reason output buffering was invented was to create a seamless transfer, from: php engine -> apache -> operating system -> web user

If you make sure each of those use the same buffer size, the system will use less writes, use less system resources and be able to handle more traffic.

With Regards, Hossein
up
3
Bitwise
9 years ago
There is no start flag problem. One just has to notice that the second parameter is not a mode but consists of bitwise-OR'ed flags.

<?php
function ob_handler($string, $flags) {
        static
$input = array();
        if (
$flags & PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_START )
               
$flags_sent[] = "PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_START";
        if (
$flags & PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT )
               
$flags_sent[] = "PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT";
        if (
$flags & PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_END )
               
$flags_sent[] = "PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_END";
       
$input[] = implode(' | ', $flags_sent) . " ($flags): $string<br />";
       
$output  = "$string<br />";
        if (
$flags & PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_END ) {
               
$output .= '<br />';
                foreach(
$input as $k => $v) $output .= "$k: $v";
        }
        return
$output;
}

ob_start('ob_handler');

echo
'flush';
ob_flush();

echo
'flush 2';
ob_flush();

echo
'clean';
ob_clean();

echo
'flush 3';
ob_flush();

echo
'end flush';
ob_end_flush();
?>

flush
flush 2
flush 3
end flush

0: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_START | PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT (3): flush
1: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT (2): flush 2
2: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT (2): clean
3: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT (2): flush 3
4: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_END (4): end flush
up
2
mariusads at helpedia dot com
10 years ago
Make sure the editor you use does not add the UTF8/UTF16 BOM at the start of the scripts if you want to use ob_start("ob_gzhandler");

If those three characters are present, browsers like Firefox won't be able to decode the pages and will report:

Content Encoding Error

The page you are trying to view cannot be shown because it uses an invalid or unsupported form of compression.

The page you are trying to view cannot be shown because it uses an invalid or unsupported form of compression.

Google Chrome will simply report "Error 2 (net::ERR_FAILED): Unknown error."

With the ob_start command commented out, the page is successfully load and the browser will usually detect the BOM and not show it on the page, so everything's hard to debug.
up
3
me at haravikk dot com
7 years ago
I think it's worth noting that while you can't call any output functions such as echo or print from within a callback function, you can still send headers (presumably including cookies, haven't checked). Of course this only works in the first callback, like so:

<?php

function myCallback($buffer, $flags) {
    if (
$flags & PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_START) {
       
header('Server: LastMinuteHeaderServer');
    }
}

ob_start('myCallback');
echo
"Hello World!";
ob_end_flush();

?>

Not the most inspiring example, but in this case the code is able to sneak a last-minute header in before the headers part of the response is sent. This can be handy if you want to avoid replacing header values that are uncertain.

For example if your code may return an image, but you don't want to set content type until you're sure that the image can be sent successfully, you can use the callback to leave the decision right until the very last moment, by which point you're hopefully sure of what's being sent in the HTTP body.
up
5
lucky760 at yahoo dot com
12 years ago
In extension to the compress() function posted below, here's a nifty little class that improves the idea a bit. Basically, running that compress() function for all your CSS for every single page load is clearly far less than optimal, especially since the styles will change only infrequently at the very worst.

With this class you can simply specify an array of your CSS file names and call dump_style(). The contents of each file are saved in compress()'d form in a cache file that is only recreated when the corresponding source CSS changes.

It's intended for PHP5, but will work identically if you just un-OOP everything and possibly define file_put_contents.

Enjoy!

<?php

$CSS_FILES
= array(
 
'_general.css'
);

$css_cache = new CSSCache($CSS_FILES);
$css_cache->dump_style();

//
// class CSSCache
//

class CSSCache {
  private
$filenames = array();
  private
$cwd;
   
  public function
__construct($i_filename_arr) {
    if (!
is_array($i_filename_arr))
     
$i_filename_arr = array($i_filename_arr);
   
   
$this->filenames = $i_filename_arr;
   
$this->cwd = getcwd() . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR;
   
    if (
$this->style_changed())
     
$expire = -72000;
    else
     
$expire = 3200;
   
   
header('Content-Type: text/css; charset: UTF-8');
   
header('Cache-Control: must-revalidate');
   
header('Expires: ' . gmdate('D, d M Y H:i:s', time() + $expire) . ' GMT');
  }
 
  public function
dump_style() {
   
ob_start('ob_gzhandler');
   
    foreach (
$this->filenames as $filename)
     
$this->dump_cache_contents($filename);
   
   
ob_end_flush();
  }
 
    private function
get_cache_name($filename, $wildcard = FALSE) {
   
$stat = stat($filename);
    return
$this->cwd . '.' . $filename . '.' .
      (
$wildcard ? '*' : ($stat['size'] . '-' . $stat['mtime'])) . '.cache';
  }
 
  private function
style_changed() {
    foreach (
$this->filenames as $filename)
      if (!
is_file($this->get_cache_name($filename)))
        return
TRUE;
    return
FALSE;
  }

  private function
compress($buffer) {
   
$buffer = preg_replace('!/\*[^*]*\*+([^/][^*]*\*+)*/!', '', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace(array("\r\n", "\r", "\n", "\t", '  '), '', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace('{ ', '{', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace(' }', '}', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace('; ', ';', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace(', ', ',', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace(' {', '{', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace('} ', '}', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace(': ', ':', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace(' ,', ',', $buffer);
   
$buffer = str_replace(' ;', ';', $buffer);
    return
$buffer;
  }
 
  private function
dump_cache_contents($filename) {
   
$current_cache = $this->get_cache_name($filename);
   
   
// the cache exists - just dump it
   
if (is_file($current_cache)) {
      include(
$current_cache);
      return;
    }
   
   
// remove any old, lingering caches for this file
   
if ($dead_files = glob($this->get_cache_name($filename, TRUE), GLOB_NOESCAPE))
      foreach (
$dead_files as $dead_file)
       
unlink($dead_file);
   
   
$compressed = $this->compress(file_get_contents($filename));
   
file_put_contents($current_cache, $compressed);
   
    echo
$compressed;
  }
}

?>
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2
Anonymous
8 years ago
In case you're in for some readable representation for flags, this is a variant as a private class member:

<?php
class foo {
    private function
getFlagsReadable($flags) {
       
$flagNames = array('PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_START', 'PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT', 'PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_END');
       
$readable = '';
        foreach(
$flagNames as $flagName)
            if (
$flags & constant($flagName) )
               
$readable .= (strlen($readable) ? ' | ' : '') . $flagName
           
;       
        return
$readable;
    }
}
?>
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1
jkloss at hotmail dot com
15 years ago
If ob_start does not seem to be working for you, note that with Apache 2 the flush() function causes PHP to send headers regardless of whether ob_start had been called before flush.

ob_start();
echo 'test';
flush();

will cause Apache 2 to send whatever headers may be stacked up - which means you can't use a header(location:xxx) after the flush.  To fix, remove the flush().  Spent several hours discovering this.  Apache 1.x didn't work this way.
up
1
Filip Dalge
7 years ago
When a fatal error is thrown, PHP will output the current buffer of Output-Control without postprocessing before printing the error message. If you are working with several output control levels, this might not result in the desired behavior.

You can use an output callback handler to handle this and discard the output.

Therefore, use ob_start("ob_error_handler") in connection with the following:

function ob_error_handler($str) {
    $error = error_get_last();
    if ($error && $error["type"] == E_USER_ERROR || $error["type"] == E_ERROR) {
        return ini_get("error_prepend_string").
          "\nFatal error: $error[message] in $error[file] on line $error[line]\n".
          ini_get("error_append_string");
    }
    return $str;
}
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coldshine at gmail dot com
11 years ago
Referring to dan at roteloftet dot com's comment:

RFC 2616 (HTTP) specifies a "transparent" Content-Encoding, "identity" (§ 3.5), that nicely suits what you tried to do with the (invalid) "None". So this equally working, and it's also RFC-compliant:

<?php
header
('Content-Encoding: identity', true);
?>
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tracey AT archive DOT org
12 years ago
Way to make all stdout and stderr write to a log
from *inside* a php script.
You simply need to make sure to call elog() every
once in awhile to get output.
It's a nice way to "daemonize" a script w.r.t. its logging.

// This allows us to capture all stdout and stderr (and error_log() calls)
// to this logfile...
// The "collected output" will be flushed anytime "elog()" is used...
ini_set("error_log", "/var/log/script.log");
ob_start();

function elog($str)
{
  // get anything written to stdout or stderr that did *NOT* use elog()
  // and write it now...
  $writeme = ob_get_contents();
  if ($writeme)
  {
    error_log($writeme);
    ob_end_clean();
    ob_start();
  }
  // now write message this method was called with
  error_log($str);
}
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clancy hood at gmail dot com
9 years ago
With ob callback: note that the second parameter sent to your method won't help you differentiate between flush calls and calls to ob_clean, but the buffer contents is sent in both cases, so you end up parsing data that isn't going to be used. Also, note that the constant PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_START is never actually sent, rather the integer "3" turns up on first flush:
<?php

   
function ob_handler($string, $flag){
        static
$input = array();
       
$done = false;
        switch(
$flag){
            case
PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_START:   
               
$flag_sent = "PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_START ($flag)";
                break; 
            case
PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT:
               
$flag_sent = "PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT ($flag)";
                break;
            case
PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_END:
               
$done = true;
               
$flag_sent = "PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_END ($flag)";
                break;
            default:
               
$flag_sent = "Flag is not a constant ($flag)";
        }
       
$input[] = "$flag_sent: $string<br />";
       
$output = "$string<br />";
        if(!
$done) return $output;
       
// print_r($input, 1) causes an error and var_export just doesn't work
       
$output .= '<br />';
        foreach(
$input as $k=>$v) $output .= "$k: $v";
        return
$output;
    }

   
ob_start('ob_handler');

    echo
'flush';
   
ob_flush();

    echo
'flush 2';
   
ob_flush();

    echo
'clean';
   
ob_clean();

    echo
'flush 3';
   
ob_flush();

    echo
'end flush';
   
ob_end_flush();
?>

flush
flush 2
flush 3
end flush

0: Flag is not a constant (3): flush
1: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT (2): flush 2
2: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT (2): clean
3: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_CONT (2): flush 3
4: PHP_OUTPUT_HANDLER_END (4): end flush

I suppose the START flag problem *may* be a bug but I'm not able to upgrade before reporting since I must have the same version as my server (I'm on PHP 5.2.6). If anyone has 5.2.11 or other stable version feel free to test/report as you see fit.
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Aleksey
14 years ago
This function dynamically changes title of HTML page:

  function change_title($new_title) {
    $output = ob_get_contents();
    ob_end_clean();

    $output = preg_replace("/<title>(.*?)<\/title>/", "<title>$new_title</title>", $output);
    echo $output;
  }

Example:
  ob_start();
  // ... some output
  change_title('NEW TITLE!');
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fordiman at gmail dot com
11 years ago
Here's a nifty function I use daily.  Essentially: include a PHP file - but render its output to a variable, rather than to the buffer.  It's also set up to load the script with a variable set, and automagically loads globals into the script's namespace, making it an effective templating scheme.  It also has error handling, so that you're not flying blind when using output buffering.

<?php
$GLOBALS
['BufferedErrors']=Array();
function
errorParse($errno, $errstr, $errfile, $errline, $errcontext) {
   
$errorTypes = Array(
       
E_ERROR => 'Fatal Error',
       
E_WARNING => 'Warning',
       
E_PARSE => 'Parse Error',
       
E_NOTICE => 'Notice',
       
E_CORE_ERROR => 'Fatal Core Error',
       
E_CORE_WARNING => 'Core Warning',
       
E_COMPILE_ERROR => 'Compilation Error',
       
E_COMPILE_WARNING => 'Compilation Warning',
       
E_USER_ERROR => 'Triggered Error',
       
E_USER_WARNING => 'Triggered Warning',
       
E_USER_NOTICE => 'Triggered Notice',
       
E_STRICT => 'Deprecation Notice',
       
E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR => 'Catchable Fatal Error'
   
);
   
$ret=(object)Array(
       
'number'=>$errno,
       
'message'=>$errstr,
       
'file'=>$errfile,
       
'line'=>$errline,
       
'context'=>$errcontext,
       
'type'=>$errorTypes[$errno]
    );
   
$GLOBALS['BufferedErrors'][]=$ret;
    return
false;
}
function
parse($fileToInclude, $argumentsToFile=false) {
   
$bufferedErrorStack = $GLOBALS['BufferedErrors'];
   
set_error_handler('errorParse', error_reporting());
   
$GLOBALS['BufferedErrors']=Array();
   
    if (!
file_exists($fileToInclude))
        return
'';
    if (
$argumentsToFile === false)
       
$argumentsToFile = Array();
   
$argumentsToFile = array_merge($GLOBALS, $argumentsToFile);
    foreach (
$argumentsToFile as $variableName => $variableValue)
        $
$variableName = $variableValue;
   
ob_start();
    include(
$fileToInclude);
   
$ret = ob_get_contents();
   
ob_end_clean();
   
   
restore_error_handler();
   
$errors = $GLOBALS['BufferedErrors'];
   
$GLOBALS['BufferedErrors'] = $bufferedErrorStack;
    if (
count($errors)>0) {
       
$ret.='<ul class="error">';
        foreach (
$errors as $error)
           
$ret.=
               
'<li>'.
                   
'<b>'.$error->type.'</b>: '.
                   
$error->message.
                   
'<blockquote>'.
                       
'<i>file</i>: '.$error->file.'<br />'.
                       
'<i>line</i>: '.$error->line.
                   
'</blockquote>'.
               
'</li>';
       
$ret.='</ul>';
    }
    return
$ret;
}
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Charlie Farrow
11 years ago
Under certain freak conditions, when an error ocours perfoming an action on an object that cannot be done (either because the object does not exist or the method does not exist) inside of an ob_start() the script will exit and print everything the current function generates before the error, but nothing else, including no error message.

I am at a loss to why no error message appears and am trying to get a working example for the developers that is simpler than my whole program!

So if you are using ob_start() and you get no output, check your objects.... you have made a mistake on them somewhere. The only trouble is you will not know where as there is no error!!
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admin at bobfrank dot org
13 years ago
If you want to run code in the middle of a string that you made, but you want to wait the printing...
(so if you want to allow php in bb-code style, and you want to execute it in order, and print everything in order...)

phpRun($code) {
    ob_start();
    exec($code);
    $output = ob_get_contents();
    ob_end_clean();
    return $output;
}

$str = str_replace("]\n", "]", $str);
$match = array('#\[php\](.*?)\[\/php\]#se');
$replace = array( phpRun( stripslashes('$1') ) );
$str= preg_replace($match, $replace, $str);

echo $str;
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mbutscher at gmx dot de
2 years ago
In case of an error the contents of the output buffer are shown along with the error message. If it is really important that this does never happen, you can do the following (but this also eats up the error message):

<?php
$outputbufferOutput
= FALSE;

function
switchableOutputHandler($buffer) {
    global
$outputbufferOutput;

    if (
$outputbufferOutput)
        return
$buffer;
    else
        return
"";
}

function
internob_start() {
    global
$outputbufferOutput;

   
$outputbufferOutput = FALSE;
    return
ob_start("switchableOutputHandler");
}

function
internob_get_clean() {
    global
$outputbufferOutput;
   
   
$outputbufferOutput = TRUE;
   
$result = ob_get_clean();
   
$outputbufferOutput = FALSE;
    return
$result;
}

?>

You can then use internob_start() and internob_get_clean() instead of ob_start() and ob_get_clean(). Other functions can be replaced accordingly.
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bty-adminf2 at trebly dot net
3 years ago
This concerns the default values used for ob_start().

Note that I could verify that ob_start() and ob_start(null,0) are not always equivalent.

It seems that with ob_start() the output buffer is open with current default parameters of your configuration if they have been explicitly defined.

So, if you have set $chunk_size to any value previously and send data larger than $chunk_size the data will be automatically flushed by blocks of $chunk_size.

If you explicitely define $chunk_size=0, later, when you will use any function as $my_ob_dataoutput=ob_get_clean(); you  will get back the whole content of your output (quite unlimited with $chunk_size=0).

I discover this because my var $my_ob_dataoutput was truncated. Using "ob_get_status (true)" function, I could verify that an error (in a lower level or by default out of my control) was setting previously the $chunk_size of ob at 4096.
I changed "ob_start()" for "ob_start(null,0)" and everything became OK.
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jhlavon
6 years ago
When used in constructor part of class it have to be prefixed by "self::" or by classname, else PHP fails to create buffer.

function __construct ()
{

$bo = ob_start ("self::callback_ob") ;
...
}
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aaron at offtone.com
14 years ago
My callback is stored in a function class, and using ob_start ('Class::callback') wasn't working. Not wanting to instantiate the class (no need, it's a function class) I tried this and it worked a charm:

ob_start (array (Class, 'callback'));

PHP 4.3.4
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Anonymous
16 years ago
If you're using Apache (1.3x or 2.0), you might consider adding automatic compression capability to your delivered pages.

I assume you all know how to build compression classes and use them in your programs, but none has yet to offer the speed and robustness of a binary-compiled module. Furthermore, such modules also log the "compressable" hit in the web log file, thus allowing your favorite web anaysing program to show you reports of bandwidth saved.

Having said that, you might consider the following two modules for Apache:

1) Apache 1.3x: use mod_gzip, available from:
http://sourceforge.net/projects/mod-gzip/

2) Apache 2.x: use mod_gz, see here:
http://www.mail-archive.com/dev@httpd.apache.org/msg00734.html

3) Apache 1.3x: you may also want to use mod_defalte, from:
ftp://ftp.lexa.ru/pub/apache-rus/contrib/

Hope it helps.
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butch at enterpol dot pl
12 years ago
simple code to make phpsession $_GET nice for Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional :)

function callback($buffer)
{
  $buffer = str_replace("&PHPSESSID", "&amp;PHPSESSID", $buffer);
  return $buffer;
}

ob_start("callback");

session_start();
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simon
13 years ago
Found that variables in class instances we're not being set after the call to ob_start().
Call ob_start after the variables are set however and it works but that didn't seem to solve the goal of a self contained templating class.
The fix was to assign the class by reference with '&new'
Here is a simplified working example:
<?php
class Buffer {
var
$template = ' - template set in class constructor';
function
Buffer() {
   
$this->startBuffer();
}
function
startBuffer() {
   
ob_start(array(&$this, 'doFlush'));
}
function
doFlush($buffer) {
   
/* simple string concat to show use of a
    template string and the buffer output */
   
return $buffer . $this->template;
}
}
/* template does not get set:
$buffer1 = new Buffer();
$buffer1->template = ' - template set in instance';
echo 'some buffer content';
*/
/* this works as expected */
$buffer2 = &new Buffer();
$buffer2->template = ' - template set in instance';
echo
'some buffer content';
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Anonymous
13 years ago
I usually create my pages in four parts - variable initialisation, import header (using the variables just declared to configure), main body (mostly non-PHP), import footer.  I wondered about making the main body examinable by another PHP script if the main page was included into it.  I found I could control output of the main body by ending the header with an unclosed function which finishes at the start of the footer, thus enclosing the main body.  Output buffering can then be used to read this into a variable.  As a demonstration of how this can be used to control the order of output look at this example:

<?php
$output
= "";

// Callback to process buffered output
function capture($buffer)
    {
   
$GLOBALS['output'] .= $buffer;
    return
"C ";
    }

// Calls the printE() function with output capture
function captureE()
    {
   
ob_start("capture");
   
printE();
   
ob_end_flush();
    }
?>

A
<?php
// Output 'E' (the main body in the example scenario)
function printE()
    {
// (End header after this line) ?>
E
    <?php // (Start footer with this line)
   
}
?>
B
<?php captureE(); ?>
D
<?php print $output; ?>
F
<?php printE(); ?>
G

The output is A B C D E F E G.

For the application I mentioned above there are two points to note:
- The page when executed alone must output its main body but the inspection script should suppress this, perhaps by means of a variable set before the page is included and then checked for in the footer output lines.
- Because the main body is now inside a function it has a different namespace, thus changes may be required to prevent code breaking (e.g. use of globals, handling of functions defined within the main body).
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oersoep at gmail dot com
14 years ago
These are handy. First one has been mentioned before.

ob_start( array( 'lib_class', 'parse_output' ) );
ob_start( array( $this, 'parse_output' ) );

Note: $this is NOT a reference. Anything the callback saves or logs disappears in the clone ob_start works with.
It does enable the callback to work with the attributes of $this, like $this->ar_tpl_value or whatever your style is.

The manual says:
"If the optional parameter chunk_size is passed, the callback function is called on every first newline after chunk_size bytes of output. The output_callback parameter may be bypassed by passing a NULL value."
This doesn't work with my 4.3.11. Might be the Zend optimizer though. Daren't turn it off to go see.
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rafa dot chacon at factorydea dot com
14 years ago
If you're trying to include a php file inside a loop by require_once (in example, a dinamic email template) and change the value of some variables (in example, url to unsuscribe, different for each user), you should use

<?php

// ... some code

$usermail = array("email1", "email2", ...);

for(
$i = 0; $i < $MAX; $i++)
{
       
$usermail_unsuscribe = $usermail[$i];
       
ob_start();
        include(
"email_template.php");
       
ob_clean();
}
?>

Otherwise $usermail_unsuscribe will get only "email1" value.
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cj at ceejayoz dot com
10 years ago
Note that since PHP 5.1.x, all objects have their destructors called before the output buffer callback function executes. Thus, globalised objects will not be available as expected in the function.

This is stated to be intended behaviour, per http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=40104
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codextasy at gmail dot com
10 years ago
There is a difference between the documentation and real callback functions invocation.
Manual says: "The function will be called when ob_end_flush() is called, or when the output buffer is flushed to the browser at the end of the request."

Actually, the callback function, once set by ob_start(), will be called regardless.
Here are the functions that invoke callback function immediately:
ob_clean
ob_end_clean
ob_end_flush
ob_flush
ob_get_clean

BUT only two of them return the result returned by the callback (ob_end_flush, ob_flush), other functions discard it.

At the end of the request, even if none of the functions listed above is called, the callback will be called anyway, and its result will be returned to the browser (well, at least this is corresponding to the manual).

There is one more trick:
If you set callback function with chunk_size > 1, callback function will be called each time output buffer is equal or exceeds chunk_size and its result will be output to the browser, even if you call any of ob_clean(), ob_end_clean(), ob_get_clean() later, so be aware of this fact.
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dale3h
11 years ago
Here's a simple way, using register_shutdown_function, to easily maintain your global output filter:

File: outputfilter.inc.php
<?php
  initOutputFilter
();

  function
initOutputFilter() {
   
ob_start('cbOutputFilter');
   
register_shutdown_function('ob_end_flush');
  }

  function
cbOutputFilter($output) {
   
$search  = array(
     
'user@domain.com',
     
'user2@domain.com',
    );
   
$replace = array(
     
'<img src="/images/nospam001.jpg" border="0" alt="" />',
     
'<img src="/images/nospam002.jpg" border="0" alt="" />',
    );

    return
str_replace($search, $replace, $output);
  }
?>

Just include it in your global file, or in each file you want to filter.

This one in particular replaces any occurrence of "user@domain.com" or "user2@domain.com" with an image (that contains each email respectively), preventing spam bots from picking it up.
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Eamon Straughn eamon at gizzle dot co dot uk
11 years ago
In regards to below. The best thing to do is create an error handler that catches all non-fatal errors prior and during your ob_start.

works for me all the time. and if there is an error you can format the errors in that script it executed in. From my experience i'm quite sure that would be the most logical choice. wouldn't it? Plus your using objects...Please do think before you can code.

Always plan else you'll be working blind. Anyways ob_start wouldn't exit;

Just plan ahead and anticipate. It's just like driving a car.. Happy new year.
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Tobias Goldkamp
12 years ago
I use this to strip unnecessary characters from HTML output:

<?php

function sanitize_output($buffer)
{
   
$search = array(
       
'/\>[^\S ]+/s', //strip whitespaces after tags, except space
       
'/[^\S ]+\</s', //strip whitespaces before tags, except space
       
'/(\s)+/s'  // shorten multiple whitespace sequences
       
);
   
$replace = array(
       
'>',
       
'<',
       
'\\1'
       
);
 
$buffer = preg_replace($search, $replace, $buffer);
    return
$buffer;
}

ob_start("sanitize_output");

?>
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