The PHP Online Conference 2021

FastCGI Process Manager (FPM)


FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) ist eine Alternative zu PHP FastCGI mit einigen zusätzlichen Features (besonders) für Websites mit hoher Last.

Zu diesen Features gehören:

  • fortschrittliches Prozessmanagement mit sanftem Stop/Start

  • die Möglichkeit einzelne Prozesse mit unterschiedlichen uid/gid/chroot/environment Einstellungen zu starten, auf unterschiedlichen Ports Anfragen entgegen zu nehmen, sowie jeweils eigene php.ini (ersetzt den safe_mode) verwenden zu können

  • Logging auf stdout und stderr

  • Notfall-Neustart, für den Fall einer zufälligen Zerstörung des Opcode-Caches

  • Unterstützung für beschleunigten Upload

  • "slowlog" - loggen von Scripts (nicht nur deren Namen, sondern deren PHP Backtraces, wobei ptrace und andere Dinge zum Einsatz kommen, um die "execute_data" des Prozesses zu debuggen) die ungewöhnlich langsam ausgeführt werden

  • fastcgi_finish_request() - Spezialfunktion, um Anfragen zu beenden und alle Daten zu senden, während gleichzeitig etwas zeitintensives, wie Videokonvertierung oder Statistik-Verarbeitung abläuft

  • dynamisches und statisches Starten von Kindprozessen

  • einfache SAPI Status Info (vergleichbar mit Apache mod_status)

  • php.ini-basierte Konfigurationsdatei

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User Contributed Notes 8 notes

robin at robinwinslow dot co dot uk
9 years ago
Init script setup

You will probably want to create an init script for your new php-fpm. Fortunately, PHP 5.3.3 provides one for you, which you should copy to your init directory and change permissions:

$ cp <php-5.3.3-source-dir>/sapi/fpm/ /etc/init.d/php-fpm
$ chmod 755 /etc/init.d/php-fpm

It requires a certain amount of setup. First of all, make sure your php-fpm.conf file is set up to  create a PID file when php-fpm starts. E.g.:
pid = /var/run/
(also make sure your php-fpm user has permission to create this file).

Now open up your new init script (/etc/init.d/php-fpm) and set the variables at the top to their relevant values. E.g.:

Your init script is now ready. You should now be able to start, stop and reload php-fpm:

$ /etc/init.d/php-fpm start
$ /etc/init.d/php-fpm stop
$ /etc/init.d/php-fpm reload

The one remaining thing you may wish to do is to add your new php-fpm init script to system start-up. E.g. in CentOS:

$ /sbin/chkconfig php-fpm on


Disclaimer: Although I did just do this on my own server about 20 mins ago, everything I've written here is off the top of my head, so it may not be 100% correct. Also, allow for differences in system setup. Some understanding of what you are doing is assumed.
kokushibyou at gmail dot com
7 years ago
PHP-FPM is FAST - but be wary of using it while your code base is stored on NFS - under average load your NFS server will feel some serious strain. I have yet to find a work around for this bug:
info at f1-outsourcing dot eu
1 year ago
It looks like the php-fpm daemon is not able to use its groups it is running with.
ikrabbe dot ask at gmail dot com
2 years ago
I'm very unhappy with the way php-fpm handles requests.
There isn't even some SCRIPT_FILENAME in the RFC for CGI, an that's the only standard I found to handle the requests.

Actually what you are doing with PATH_TRANSLATED is supposed to translate to the path, which is broken by media wikis, as they use the PATH_INFO to find the ressource, not some script.

In the original CGI context, the PATH_INFO is passed to the CGI binary to specify some ressource argument. So actually

    SCRIPT_NAME  ~ argv0
    PATH_INFO      ~ argv1

in command context.

Conclusion: We should rewrite php-fpm to obey the rfc3875 CGI standard.
Having SCRIPT_NAME pointing to /something.php, must translate to


CWD is the working directory where php-fpm is started (or configured to change to).

In case of chroot CWD = "".

In any case the SCRIPT_NAME php script can be found with ./SCRIPT_NAME, from the CWD. So the undocumented not standardized SCRIPT_FILENAME should vanish! It breaks the CGI standard.
user at NOSPAM dot example dot com
3 years ago
It is important to note that FPM is not built with the windows binaries.  Many of the guides you may find online rely on php-cgi.exe.  Unfortunately they call it FPM but this is incorrect!

The executable php-cgi.exe that is bundled with the windows binaries is a FastCGI interface but it is *not* FPM (Fastcgi Process Manager).  php-cgi.exe does not have multi-threading or concurrent request support, nor support for any of the FPM configuration options.

The only solid information I've gathered into why FPM is not available is a bug report explaining that FPM is built around fork(), which is not natively available on windows (
dreamcat4 at gmail dot com
6 years ago
Doesn't work? Enable logging!

The php-fpm.log file is a great place to fault-find errors and get to the bottom of a problem. But be sure to enable logging for your specific worker pool. Or you won't see anything!


To enable error logging for the default [www] worker pool, add this line in the [www] section of your php-fpm.conf:

catch_workers_output = yes
ganlvtech at qq dot com
2 years ago
php-fpm is not avaliable on Windows, but you can use IIS or Apache as the "fastcgi process manager".

If you have to use Nginx, here is a solution. Nginx provides a load balancing module. We can distribute the request to different php-cgi.exe process.


This is the origin nginx conf.
location ~ \.php$ {
    try_files  $uri = 404;
    fastcgi_index  index.php;
    include  fastcgi.conf;

You can replace it by
upstream php {

location ~ \.php$ {
    try_files  $uri = 404;
    fastcgi_pass  php;
    fastcgi_index  index.php;
    include  fastcgi.conf;


php-cgi.exe process will die after several requests, so you have to restart the php-cgi.exe manually to keep a process listening the port.

joel k
9 years ago
the fpm process supports the USER2 signal, which is used to reload the config file.

kill -USR2 [pid]

should do the trick.
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