访问控制(可见性)

对属性或方法的访问控制(PHP 7.1.0 以后支持常量),是通过在前面添加关键字 public(公有),protected(受保护)或 private(私有)来实现的。被定义为公有的类成员可以在任何地方被访问。 被定义为受保护的类成员则可以被其自身以及其子类和父类访问。被定义为私有的类成员则只能被其定义所在的类访问。

属性的访问控制

类属性可以定义为public, private 或者 protected。在没有任何访问控制关键字的情况下,属性声明为 public。

示例 #1 属性声明

<?php
/**
* Define MyClass
*/
class MyClass
{
public
$public = 'Public';
protected
$protected = 'Protected';
private
$private = 'Private';

function
printHello()
{
echo
$this->public;
echo
$this->protected;
echo
$this->private;
}
}

$obj = new MyClass();
echo
$obj->public; // 这行能被正常执行
echo $obj->protected; // 这行会产生一个致命错误
echo $obj->private; // 这行也会产生一个致命错误
$obj->printHello(); // 输出 Public、Protected 和 Private


/**
* Define MyClass2
*/
class MyClass2 extends MyClass
{
// 可以对 public 和 protected 进行重定义,但 private 而不能
public $public = 'Public2';
protected
$protected = 'Protected2';

function
printHello()
{
echo
$this->public;
echo
$this->protected;
echo
$this->private;
}
}

$obj2 = new MyClass2();
echo
$obj2->public; // 这行能被正常执行
echo $obj2->protected; // 这行会产生一个致命错误
echo $obj2->private; // 未定义 private
$obj2->printHello(); // 输出 Public2、Protected2 和 Undefined

?>

方法的访问控制

类中的方法可以被定义为 public、private 或 protected。如果没有设置这些关键字,则该方法默认为 public。

示例 #2 方法声明

<?php
/**
* Define MyClass
*/
class MyClass
{
// 声明一个公有的构造函数
public function __construct() { }

// 声明一个公有的方法
public function MyPublic() { }

// 声明一个受保护的方法
protected function MyProtected() { }

// 声明一个私有的方法
private function MyPrivate() { }

// 此方法为公有
function Foo()
{
$this->MyPublic();
$this->MyProtected();
$this->MyPrivate();
}
}

$myclass = new MyClass;
$myclass->MyPublic(); // 这行能被正常执行
$myclass->MyProtected(); // 这行会产生一个致命错误
$myclass->MyPrivate(); // 这行会产生一个致命错误
$myclass->Foo(); // 公有,受保护,私有都可以执行


/**
* Define MyClass2
*/
class MyClass2 extends MyClass
{
// 此方法为公有
function Foo2()
{
$this->MyPublic();
$this->MyProtected();
$this->MyPrivate(); // 这行会产生一个致命错误
}
}

$myclass2 = new MyClass2;
$myclass2->MyPublic(); // 这行能被正常执行
$myclass2->Foo2(); // 公有的和受保护的都可执行,但私有的不行

class Bar
{
public function
test() {
$this->testPrivate();
$this->testPublic();
}

public function
testPublic() {
echo
"Bar::testPublic\n";
}

private function
testPrivate() {
echo
"Bar::testPrivate\n";
}
}

class
Foo extends Bar
{
public function
testPublic() {
echo
"Foo::testPublic\n";
}

private function
testPrivate() {
echo
"Foo::testPrivate\n";
}
}

$myFoo = new foo();
$myFoo->test(); // Bar::testPrivate
// Foo::testPublic
?>

常量的控制访问

PHP 7.1.0 开始,类的常量可以定义为 public、private 或 protected。如果没有设置这些关键字,则该常量默认为 public。

示例 #3 PHP 7.1.0 中的常量声明

<?php
/**
* Define MyClass
*/
class MyClass
{
// 公有常量
public const MY_PUBLIC = 'public';

// 受保护的常量
protected const MY_PROTECTED = 'protected';

// 私有常量
private const MY_PRIVATE = 'private';

public function
foo()
{
echo
self::MY_PUBLIC;
echo
self::MY_PROTECTED;
echo
self::MY_PRIVATE;
}
}

$myclass = new MyClass();
MyClass::MY_PUBLIC; // 这行可以正常执行
MyClass::MY_PROTECTED; // 这行会产生一个致命错误
MyClass::MY_PRIVATE; // 这行会产生一个致命错误
$myclass->foo(); // 将会输出:Public Protected Private


/**
* Define MyClass2
*/
class MyClass2 extends MyClass
{
// This is public
function foo2()
{
echo
self::MY_PUBLIC;
echo
self::MY_PROTECTED;
echo
self::MY_PRIVATE; // 这行会产生一个致命错误
}
}

$myclass2 = new MyClass2;
echo
MyClass2::MY_PUBLIC; // 这行可以正常执行
$myclass2->foo2(); // 将会输出:Public Protected,MY_PRIVATE 是私有常量,无法输出
?>

其它对象的访问控制

同一个类的对象即使不是同一个实例也可以互相访问对方的 private 与 protected 成员。 这是由于在这些对象的内部具体实现的细节都是已知的。

示例 #4 访问同一个对象类型的 private 成员

<?php
class Test
{
private
$foo;

public function
__construct($foo)
{
$this->foo = $foo;
}

private function
bar()
{
echo
'Accessed the private method.';
}

public function
baz(Test $other)
{
// 我们可以改变 private 属性:
$other->foo = 'hello';
var_dump($other->foo);

// 我们也可以调用 private 方法:
$other->bar();
}
}

$test = new Test('test');

$test->baz(new Test('other'));
?>

以上示例会输出:

string(5) "hello"
Accessed the private method.
add a note

User Contributed Notes 7 notes

up
61
pgl at yoyo dot org
8 years ago
Just a quick note that it's possible to declare visibility for multiple properties at the same time, by separating them by commas.

eg:

<?php
class a
{
protected
$a, $b;

public
$c, $d;

private
$e, $f;
}
?>
up
20
r dot wilczek at web-appz dot de
18 years ago
Beware: Visibility works on a per-class-base and does not prevent instances of the same class accessing each others properties!

<?php
class Foo
{
private
$bar;

public function
debugBar(Foo $object)
{
// this does NOT violate visibility although $bar is private
echo $object->bar, "\n";
}

public function
setBar($value)
{
// Neccessary method, for $bar is invisible outside the class
$this->bar = $value;
}

public function
setForeignBar(Foo $object, $value)
{
// this does NOT violate visibility!
$object->bar = $value;
}
}

$a = new Foo();
$b = new Foo();
$a->setBar(1);
$b->setBar(2);
$a->debugBar($b); // 2
$b->debugBar($a); // 1
$a->setForeignBar($b, 3);
$b->setForeignBar($a, 4);
$a->debugBar($b); // 3
$b->debugBar($a); // 4
?>
up
8
jc dot flash at gmail dot com
11 years ago
if not overwritten, self::$foo in a subclass actually refers to parent's self::$foo
<?php
class one
{
protected static
$foo = "bar";
public function
change_foo($value)
{
self::$foo = $value;
}
}

class
two extends one
{
public function
tell_me()
{
echo
self::$foo;
}
}
$first = new one;
$second = new two;

$second->tell_me(); // bar
$first->change_foo("restaurant");
$second->tell_me(); // restaurant
?>
up
6
Joshua Watt
16 years ago
I couldn't find this documented anywhere, but you can access protected and private member varaibles in different instance of the same class, just as you would expect

i.e.

<?php
class A
{
protected
$prot;
private
$priv;

public function
__construct($a, $b)
{
$this->prot = $a;
$this->priv = $b;
}

public function
print_other(A $other)
{
echo
$other->prot;
echo
$other->priv;
}
}

class
B extends A
{
}

$a = new A("a_protected", "a_private");
$other_a = new A("other_a_protected", "other_a_private");

$b = new B("b_protected", "ba_private");

$other_a->print_other($a); //echoes a_protected and a_private
$other_a->print_other($b); //echoes b_protected and ba_private

$b->print_other($a); //echoes a_protected and a_private
?>
up
2
bishop at php dot net
7 years ago
> Members declared protected can be accessed only within
> the class itself and by inherited classes. Members declared
> as private may only be accessed by the class that defines
> the member.

This is not strictly true. Code outside the object can get and set private and protected members:

<?php
class Sealed { private $value = 'foo'; }

$sealed = new Sealed;
var_dump($sealed); // private $value => string(3) "foo"

call_user_func(\Closure::bind(
function () use (
$sealed) { $sealed->value = 'BAZ'; },
null,
$sealed
));

var_dump($sealed); // private $value => string(3) "BAZ"

?>

The magic lay in \Closure::bind, which allows an anonymous function to bind to a particular class scope. The documentation on \Closure::bind says:

> If an object is given, the type of the object will be used
> instead. This determines the visibility of protected and
> private methods of the bound object.

So, effectively, we're adding a run-time setter to $sealed, then calling that setter. This can be elaborated to generic functions that can force set and force get object members:

<?php
function force_set($object, $property, $value) {
call_user_func(\Closure::bind(
function () use (
$object, $property, $value) {
$object->{$property} = $value;
},
null,
$object
));
}

function
force_get($object, $property) {
return
call_user_func(\Closure::bind(
function () use (
$object, $property) {
return
$object->{$property};
},
null,
$object
));
}

force_set($sealed, 'value', 'quux');
var_dump(force_get($sealed, 'value')); // 'quux'

?>

You should probably not rely on this ability for production quality code, but having this ability for debugging and testing is handy.
up
0
alperenberatdurmus at gmail dot com
10 months ago
Dynamic properties are "public".
<?php
class MyClass {
public function
setProperty($value) {
$this->dynamicProperty = $value;
}
}
$obj = new MyClass();
$obj->setProperty('Hello World');
echo
$obj->dynamicProperty; // Outputs "Hello World"
?>

This usage is the same as well:
<?php
class MyClass {
}
$obj = new MyClass();
$obj->dynamicProperty = 'Hello World';
echo
$obj->dynamicProperty; // Outputs "Hello World"
?>
up
0
kostya at eltexsoft dot com
2 years ago
I see we can redeclare private properties into child class
<?php
class A{
private
int $private_prop = 4;
protected
int $protected_prop = 8;
}

class
B extends A{
private
int $private_prop = 7; // we can redeclare private property!!!
public function printAll() {
echo
$this->private_prop;
echo
$this->protected_prop;
}
}

$b = new B;
$b->printAll(); // show 78
}
?>
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