トレイト

PHP は、コードを再利用するための「トレイト」という仕組みを実装しています。

トレイトは、PHP のような単一継承言語でコードを再利用するための仕組みのひとつです。 トレイトは、単一継承の制約を減らすために作られたもので、 いくつかのメソッド群を異なるクラス階層にある独立したクラスで再利用できるようにします。 トレイトとクラスを組み合わせた構文は複雑さを軽減させてくれ、 多重継承や Mixin に関連するありがちな問題を回避することもできます。

トレイトはクラスと似ていますが、トレイトは単にいくつかの機能をまとめるためだけのものです。 トレイト自身のインスタンスを作成することはできません。 昔ながらの継承に機能を加えて、振る舞いを水平方向で構成できるようになります。 つまり、継承しなくてもクラスのメンバーに追加できるようになります。

例1 トレイトの例

<?php
trait ezcReflectionReturnInfo {
function
getReturnType() { /*1*/ }
function
getReturnDescription() { /*2*/ }
}

class
ezcReflectionMethod extends ReflectionMethod {
use
ezcReflectionReturnInfo;
/* ... */
}

class
ezcReflectionFunction extends ReflectionFunction {
use
ezcReflectionReturnInfo;
/* ... */
}
?>

優先順位

基底クラスから継承したメンバーよりも、トレイトで追加したメンバーのほうが優先されます。 優先順位は現在のクラスのメンバーが最高で、その次がトレイトのメソッド、 そしてその次にくるのが継承したメソッドとなります。

例2 優先順位の例

基底クラスから継承したメソッドは、MyHelloWorld に SayWorld トレイトから追加されたメソッドで上書きされます。 この挙動は、MyHelloWorld クラスで定義したメソッドでも同じです。 優先順位は現在のクラスのメンバーが最高で、その次がトレイトのメソッド、 そしてその次にくるのが継承したメソッドとなります。

<?php
class Base {
public function
sayHello() {
echo
'Hello ';
}
}

trait
SayWorld {
public function
sayHello() {
parent::sayHello();
echo
'World!';
}
}

class
MyHelloWorld extends Base {
use
SayWorld;
}

$o = new MyHelloWorld();
$o->sayHello();
?>

上の例の出力は以下となります。

Hello World!

例3 もうひとつの優先順位の例

<?php
trait HelloWorld {
public function
sayHello() {
echo
'Hello World!';
}
}

class
TheWorldIsNotEnough {
use
HelloWorld;
public function
sayHello() {
echo
'Hello Universe!';
}
}

$o = new TheWorldIsNotEnough();
$o->sayHello();
?>

上の例の出力は以下となります。

Hello Universe!

複数のトレイト

複数のトレイトをひとつのクラスに追加するには、use 文でカンマ区切りで指定します。

例4 複数のトレイトの使用例

<?php
trait Hello {
public function
sayHello() {
echo
'Hello ';
}
}

trait
World {
public function
sayWorld() {
echo
'World';
}
}

class
MyHelloWorld {
use
Hello, World;
public function
sayExclamationMark() {
echo
'!';
}
}

$o = new MyHelloWorld();
$o->sayHello();
$o->sayWorld();
$o->sayExclamationMark();
?>

上の例の出力は以下となります。

Hello World!

衝突の解決

同じ名前のメンバーを含む複数のトレイトを追加するときには、 衝突を明示的に解決しておかないと fatal エラーが発生します。

同一クラス内での複数のトレイト間の名前の衝突を解決するには、 insteadof 演算子を使って そのうちのひとつを選ばなければなりません。

この方法はひとつのメソッドだけしか使えませんが、 as 演算子を使うと、 メソッドのいずれかにエイリアスを追加できます。 as 演算子はメソッドをリネームするわけではないので、 その他のメソッドにも何も影響を及ぼさないことに注意しましょう。

例5 衝突の解決

この例では、Talker がトレイト A と B を使います。 A と B には同じ名前のメソッドがあるので、 smallTalk はトレイト B を使って bigTalk はトレイト A を使うように定義します。

Aliased_Talker は、as 演算子を使って B の bigTalk の実装に talk というエイリアスを指定して使います。

<?php
trait A {
public function
smallTalk() {
echo
'a';
}
public function
bigTalk() {
echo
'A';
}
}

trait
B {
public function
smallTalk() {
echo
'b';
}
public function
bigTalk() {
echo
'B';
}
}

class
Talker {
use
A, B {
B::smallTalk insteadof A;
A::bigTalk insteadof B;
}
}

class
Aliased_Talker {
use
A, B {
B::smallTalk insteadof A;
A::bigTalk insteadof B;
B::bigTalk as talk;
}
}
?>

メソッドのアクセス権の変更

as 構文を使うと、 クラス内でのメソッドのアクセス権も変更することができます。

例6 メソッドのアクセス権を変更する

<?php
trait HelloWorld {
public function
sayHello() {
echo
'Hello World!';
}
}

// sayHello のアクセス権を変更します
class MyClass1 {
use
HelloWorld { sayHello as protected; }
}

// アクセス権を変更したエイリアスメソッドを作ります
// sayHello 自体のアクセス権は変わりません
class MyClass2 {
use
HelloWorld { sayHello as private myPrivateHello; }
}
?>

トレイトを組み合わせたトレイト

クラスからトレイトを使えるのと同様に、トレイトからもトレイトを使えます。 トレイトの定義の中でトレイトを使うと、 定義したトレイトのメンバーの全体あるいは一部を組み合わせることができます。

例7 トレイトを組み合わせたトレイト

<?php
trait Hello {
public function
sayHello() {
echo
'Hello ';
}
}

trait
World {
public function
sayWorld() {
echo
'World!';
}
}

trait
HelloWorld {
use
Hello, World;
}

class
MyHelloWorld {
use
HelloWorld;
}

$o = new MyHelloWorld();
$o->sayHello();
$o->sayWorld();
?>

上の例の出力は以下となります。

Hello World!

トレイトのメンバーの抽象化

トレイトでは、抽象メソッドを使ってクラスの要件を指定できます。 アクセス権は public, protected, private をサポートしています。 PHP 8.0.0 より前のバージョンでは、 public と protected な抽象メソッドだけがサポートされていました。

警告

具象クラスでは、 具象メソッドを同じ名前で定義することによって、要件を満たせます。 つまり、シグネチャは異なっていても構いません。

例8 抽象メソッドによる、要件の明示

<?php
trait Hello {
public function
sayHelloWorld() {
echo
'Hello'.$this->getWorld();
}
abstract public function
getWorld();
}

class
MyHelloWorld {
private
$world;
use
Hello;
public function
getWorld() {
return
$this->world;
}
public function
setWorld($val) {
$this->world = $val;
}
}
?>

トレイトの static メンバー

トレイトでは、static 変数、static メソッド、static プロパティを定義できます。

注意:

PHP 8.1.0 以降では、トレイトにある static メソッドや、 static プロパティに直接アクセスすることは、 推奨されなくなりました。 これらは、トレイトを使っているクラスからのみアクセスすべきものです。

例9 static変数

<?php
trait Counter {
public function
inc() {
static
$c = 0;
$c = $c + 1;
echo
"$c\n";
}
}

class
C1 {
use
Counter;
}

class
C2 {
use
Counter;
}

$o = new C1(); $o->inc(); // 1 と表示
$p = new C2(); $p->inc(); // 1 と表示
?>

例10 staticメソッド

<?php
trait StaticExample {
public static function
doSomething() {
return
'Doing something';
}
}

class
Example {
use
StaticExample;
}

Example::doSomething();
?>

例11 staticプロパティ

<?php
trait StaticExample {
public static
$static = 'foo';
}
class
Example {
use
StaticExample;
}
echo
Example::$static;
?>

プロパティ

トレイトにはプロパティも定義できます。

例12 プロパティの定義

<?php
trait PropertiesTrait {
public
$x = 1;
}

class
PropertiesExample {
use
PropertiesTrait;
}

$example = new PropertiesExample;
$example->x;
?>

トレイトでプロパティを定義したときは、 クラスではそれと互換性 (公開範囲と型とreadonlyの有無、そして初期値が同じ) がない同じ名前のプロパティを定義できません。 互換性がない名前を定義すると、致命的なエラーが発生します。

例13 衝突の解決

<?php
trait PropertiesTrait {
public
$same = true;
public
$different1 = false;
public
bool $different2;
readonly public bool $different3;
}

class
PropertiesExample {
use
PropertiesTrait;
public
$same = true;
public
$different1 = true; // Fatal error
public string $different2; // Fatal error
readonly public bool $different3; // Fatal error
}
?>

定数

PHP 8.2.0 以降では、トレイトでも定数を定義できます。

例14 定数を定義する

<?php
trait ConstantsTrait {
public const
FLAG_MUTABLE = 1;
final public const
FLAG_IMMUTABLE = 5;
}

class
ConstantsExample {
use
ConstantsTrait;
}

$example = new ConstantsExample;
echo
$example::FLAG_MUTABLE; // 1
?>

トレイトで定数を定義したときは、 クラスではそれと互換性 (公開範囲と初期値、そして final の有無が同じ) がない同じ名前の定数を定義できません。 互換性がない名前を定義すると、致命的なエラーが発生します。

例15 衝突の解決

<?php
trait ConstantsTrait {
public const
FLAG_MUTABLE = 1;
final public const
FLAG_IMMUTABLE = 5;
}

class
ConstantsExample {
use
ConstantsTrait;
public const
FLAG_IMMUTABLE = 5; // Fatal error
}
?>
add a note

User Contributed Notes 24 notes

up
616
Safak Ozpinar / safakozpinar at gmail
10 years ago
Unlike inheritance; if a trait has static properties, each class using that trait has independent instances of those properties.

Example using parent class:
<?php
class TestClass {
    public static
$_bar;
}
class
Foo1 extends TestClass { }
class
Foo2 extends TestClass { }
Foo1::$_bar = 'Hello';
Foo2::$_bar = 'World';
echo
Foo1::$_bar . ' ' . Foo2::$_bar; // Prints: World World
?>

Example using trait:
<?php
trait TestTrait {
    public static
$_bar;
}
class
Foo1 {
    use
TestTrait;
}
class
Foo2 {
    use
TestTrait;
}
Foo1::$_bar = 'Hello';
Foo2::$_bar = 'World';
echo
Foo1::$_bar . ' ' . Foo2::$_bar; // Prints: Hello World
?>
up
430
greywire at gmail dot com
10 years ago
The best way to understand what traits are and how to use them is to look at them for what they essentially are:  language assisted copy and paste.

If you can copy and paste the code from one class to another (and we've all done this, even though we try not to because its code duplication) then you have a candidate for a trait.
up
232
Stefan W
9 years ago
Note that the "use" operator for traits (inside a class) and the "use" operator for namespaces (outside the class) resolve names differently. "use" for namespaces always sees its arguments as absolute (starting at the global namespace):

<?php
namespace Foo\Bar;
use
Foo\Test// means \Foo\Test - the initial \ is optional
?>

On the other hand, "use" for traits respects the current namespace:

<?php
namespace Foo\Bar;
class
SomeClass {
    use
Foo\Test;   // means \Foo\Bar\Foo\Test
}
?>

Together with "use" for closures, there are now three different "use" operators. They all mean different things and behave differently.
up
92
chris dot rutledge at gmail dot com
11 years ago
It may be worth noting here that the magic constant __CLASS__ becomes even more magical - __CLASS__ will return the name of the class in which the trait is being used.

for example

<?php
trait sayWhere {
    public function
whereAmI() {
        echo
__CLASS__;
    }
}

class
Hello {
    use
sayWHere;
}

class
World {
    use
sayWHere;
}

$a = new Hello;
$a->whereAmI(); //Hello

$b = new World;
$b->whereAmI(); //World
?>

The magic constant __TRAIT__ will giev you the name of the trait
up
90
t8 at AT pobox dot com
10 years ago
Another difference with traits vs inheritance is that methods defined in traits can access methods and properties of the class they're used in, including private ones.

For example:
<?php
trait MyTrait
{
  protected function
accessVar()
  {
    return
$this->var;
  }

}

class
TraitUser
{
  use
MyTrait;

  private
$var = 'var';

  public function
getVar()
  {
    return
$this->accessVar();
  }
}

$t = new TraitUser();
echo
$t->getVar(); // -> 'var'                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

?>
up
56
qeremy (!) gmail
7 years ago
Keep in mind; "final" keyword is useless in traits when directly using them, unlike extending classes / abstract classes.

<?php
trait Foo {
    final public function
hello($s) { print "$s, hello!"; }
}
class
Bar {
    use
Foo;
   
// Overwrite, no error
   
final public function hello($s) { print "hello, $s!"; }
}

abstract class
Foo {
    final public function
hello($s) { print "$s, hello!"; }
}
class
Bar extends Foo {
   
// Fatal error: Cannot override final method Foo::hello() in ..
   
final public function hello($s) { print "hello, $s!"; }
}
?>

But this way will finalize trait methods as expected;

<?php
trait FooTrait {
    final public function
hello($s) { print "$s, hello!"; }
}
abstract class
Foo {
    use
FooTrait;
}
class
Bar extends Foo {
   
// Fatal error: Cannot override final method Foo::hello() in ..
   
final public function hello($s) { print "hello, $s!"; }
}
?>
up
14
rawsrc
4 years ago
About the (Safak Ozpinar / safakozpinar at gmail)'s great note, you can still have the same behavior than inheritance using trait with this approach :
<?php

trait TestTrait {
    public static
$_bar;
}

class
FooBar {
    use
TestTrait;
}

class
Foo1 extends FooBar {

}
class
Foo2 extends FooBar {

}
Foo1::$_bar = 'Hello';
Foo2::$_bar = 'World';
echo
Foo1::$_bar . ' ' . Foo2::$_bar; // Prints: World World
up
29
canufrank
6 years ago
A number of the notes make incorrect assertions about trait behaviour because they do not extend the class.

So, while "Unlike inheritance; if a trait has static properties, each class using that trait has independent instances of those properties.

Example using parent class:
<?php
class TestClass {
    public static
$_bar;
}
class
Foo1 extends TestClass { }
class
Foo2 extends TestClass { }
Foo1::$_bar = 'Hello';
Foo2::$_bar = 'World';
echo
Foo1::$_bar . ' ' . Foo2::$_bar; // Prints: World World
?>

Example using trait:
<?php
trait TestTrait {
    public static
$_bar;
}
class
Foo1 {
    use
TestTrait;
}
class
Foo2 {
    use
TestTrait;
}
Foo1::$_bar = 'Hello';
Foo2::$_bar = 'World';
echo
Foo1::$_bar . ' ' . Foo2::$_bar; // Prints: Hello World
?>"

shows a correct example, simply adding
<?php
require_once('above');
class
Foo3 extends Foo2 {
}
Foo3::$_bar = 'news';
echo
Foo1::$_bar . ' ' . Foo2::$_bar . ' ' . Foo3::$_bar;

// Prints: Hello news news

I think the best conceptual model of an incorporated trait is an advanced insertion of text, or as someone put it "language assisted copy and paste." If Foo1 and Foo2 were defined with $_bar, you would not expect them to share the instance. Similarly, you would expect Foo3 to share with Foo2, and it does.

Viewing this way explains away a lot of  the 'quirks' that are observed above with final, or subsequently declared private vars,
up
9
balbuf
7 years ago
(It's already been said, but for the sake of searching on the word "relative"...)

The "use" keyword to import a trait into a class will resolve relative to the current namespace and therefore should include a leading slash to represent a full path, whereas "use" at the namespace level is always absolute.
up
19
marko at newvibrations dot net
6 years ago
As already noted, static properties and methods in trait could be accessed directly using trait. Since trait is language assisted c/p, you should be aware that static property from trait will be initialized to the value trait property had in the time of class declaration.

Example:

<?php

trait Beer {
    protected static
$type = 'Light';
    public static function
printed(){
        echo static::
$type.PHP_EOL;
    }
    public static function
setType($type){
        static::
$type = $type;
    }
}

class
Ale {
    use
Beer;
}

Beer::setType("Dark");

class
Lager {
    use
Beer;
}

Beer::setType("Amber");

header("Content-type: text/plain");

Beer::printed();  // Prints: Amber
Ale::printed();   // Prints: Light
Lager::printed(); // Prints: Dark

?>
up
18
Edward
10 years ago
The difference between Traits and multiple inheritance is in the inheritance part.   A trait is not inherited from, but rather included or mixed-in, thus becoming part of "this class".   Traits also provide a more controlled means of resolving conflicts that inevitably arise when using multiple inheritance in the few languages that support them (C++).  Most modern languages are going the approach of a "traits" or "mixin" style system as opposed to multiple-inheritance, largely due to the ability to control ambiguities if a method is declared in multiple "mixed-in" classes.

Also, one can not "inherit" static member functions in multiple-inheritance.
up
3
guidobelluomo at gmail dot com
2 years ago
If you override a method which was defined by a trait, calling the parent method will also call the trait's override. Therefore if you need to derive from a class which has a trait, you can extend the class without losing the trait's functionality:

<?php

trait ExampleTrait
{
    public function
output()
    {
       
parent::output();
        echo
"bar<br>";
    }
}

class
Foo
{
    public function
output()
    {
        echo
"foo<br>";
    }
}

class
FooBar extends Foo
{
    use
ExampleTrait;
}

class
FooBarBaz extends FooBar
{
    use
ExampleTrait;
    public function
output()
    {
       
parent::output();
        echo
"baz";
    }
}

(new
FooBarBaz())->output();
?>

Output:
foo
bar
baz
up
11
qschuler at neosyne dot com
8 years ago
Note that you can omit a method's inclusion by excluding it from one trait in favor of the other and doing the exact same thing in the reverse way.

<?php

trait A {
    public function
sayHello()
    {
        echo
'Hello from A';
    }

    public function
sayWorld()
    {
        echo
'World from A';
    }
}

trait
B {
    public function
sayHello()
    {
        echo
'Hello from B';
    }

    public function
sayWorld()
    {
        echo
'World from B';
    }
}

class
Talker {
    use
A, B {
       
A::sayHello insteadof B;
       
A::sayWorld insteadof B;
       
B::sayWorld insteadof A;
    }
}

$talker = new Talker();
$talker->sayHello();
$talker->sayWorld();

?>

The method sayHello is imported, but the method sayWorld is simply excluded.
up
41
ryan at derokorian dot com
10 years ago
Simple singleton trait.

<?php

trait singleton {   
   
/**
     * private construct, generally defined by using class
     */
    //private function __construct() {}
   
   
public static function getInstance() {
        static
$_instance = NULL;
       
$class = __CLASS__;
        return
$_instance ?: $_instance = new $class;
    }
   
    public function
__clone() {
       
trigger_error('Cloning '.__CLASS__.' is not allowed.',E_USER_ERROR);
    }
   
    public function
__wakeup() {
       
trigger_error('Unserializing '.__CLASS__.' is not allowed.',E_USER_ERROR);
    }
}

/**
* Example Usage
*/

class foo {
    use
singleton;
   
    private function
__construct() {
       
$this->name = 'foo';
    }
}

class
bar {
    use
singleton;
   
    private function
__construct() {
       
$this->name = 'bar';
    }
}

$foo = foo::getInstance();
echo
$foo->name;

$bar = bar::getInstance();
echo
$bar->name;
up
14
Kristof
8 years ago
don't forget you can create complex (embedded) traits as well

<?php
trait Name {
 
// ...
}
trait
Address {
 
// ...
}
trait
Telephone {
 
// ...
}
trait
Contact {
  use
Name, Address, Telephone;
}
class
Customer {
  use
Contact;
}
class
Invoce {
  use
Contact;
}
?>
up
5
cody at codysnider dot com
5 years ago
/*
DocBlocks pertaining to the class or trait will NOT be carried over when applying the trait.

Results trying a couple variations on classes with and without DocBlocks that use a trait with a DocBlock
*/

<?php

/**
* @Entity
*/
trait Foo
{
    protected
$foo;
}

/**
* @HasLifecycleCallbacks
*/
class Bar
{
    use \
Foo;
   
    protected
$bar;
}

class
MoreBar
{
    use \
Foo;
   
    protected
$moreBar;
}

$w = new \ReflectionClass('\Bar');
echo
$w->getName() . ":\r\n";
echo
$w->getDocComment() . "\r\n\r\n";

$x = new \ReflectionClass('\MoreBar');
echo
$x->getName() . ":\r\n";
echo
$x->getDocComment() . "\r\n\r\n";

$barObj = new \Bar();
$y = new \ReflectionClass($barObj);
echo
$y->getName() . ":\r\n";
echo
$y->getDocComment() . "\r\n\r\n";

foreach(
$y->getTraits() as $traitObj) {
    echo
$y->getName() . " ";
    echo
$traitObj->getName() . ":\r\n";
    echo
$traitObj->getDocComment() . "\r\n";
}

$moreBarObj = new \MoreBar();
$z = new \ReflectionClass($moreBarObj);
echo
$z->getName() . " ";
echo
$z->getDocComment() . "\r\n\r\n";

foreach(
$z->getTraits() as $traitObj) {
    echo
$z->getName() . " ";
    echo
$traitObj->getName() . ":\r\n";
    echo
$traitObj->getDocComment() . "\r\n";
}
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13
D. Marti
10 years ago
Traits are useful for strategies, when you want the same data to be handled (filtered, sorted, etc) differently.

For example, you have a list of products that you want to filter out based on some criteria (brands, specs, whatever), or sorted by different means (price, label, whatever). You can create a sorting trait that contains different functions for different sorting types (numeric, string, date, etc). You can then use this trait not only in your product class (as given in the example), but also in other classes that need similar strategies (to apply a numeric sort to some data, etc).

<?php
trait SortStrategy {
    private
$sort_field = null;
    private function
string_asc($item1, $item2) {
        return
strnatcmp($item1[$this->sort_field], $item2[$this->sort_field]);
    }
    private function
string_desc($item1, $item2) {
        return
strnatcmp($item2[$this->sort_field], $item1[$this->sort_field]);
    }
    private function
num_asc($item1, $item2) {
        if (
$item1[$this->sort_field] == $item2[$this->sort_field]) return 0;
        return (
$item1[$this->sort_field] < $item2[$this->sort_field] ? -1 : 1 );
    }
    private function
num_desc($item1, $item2) {
        if (
$item1[$this->sort_field] == $item2[$this->sort_field]) return 0;
        return (
$item1[$this->sort_field] > $item2[$this->sort_field] ? -1 : 1 );
    }
    private function
date_asc($item1, $item2) {
       
$date1 = intval(str_replace('-', '', $item1[$this->sort_field]));
       
$date2 = intval(str_replace('-', '', $item2[$this->sort_field]));
        if (
$date1 == $date2) return 0;
        return (
$date1 < $date2 ? -1 : 1 );
    }
    private function
date_desc($item1, $item2) {
       
$date1 = intval(str_replace('-', '', $item1[$this->sort_field]));
       
$date2 = intval(str_replace('-', '', $item2[$this->sort_field]));
        if (
$date1 == $date2) return 0;
        return (
$date1 > $date2 ? -1 : 1 );
    }
}

class
Product {
    public
$data = array();
   
    use
SortStrategy;
   
    public function
get() {
       
// do something to get the data, for this ex. I just included an array
       
$this->data = array(
           
101222 => array('label' => 'Awesome product', 'price' => 10.50, 'date_added' => '2012-02-01'),
           
101232 => array('label' => 'Not so awesome product', 'price' => 5.20, 'date_added' => '2012-03-20'),
           
101241 => array('label' => 'Pretty neat product', 'price' => 9.65, 'date_added' => '2012-04-15'),
           
101256 => array('label' => 'Freakishly cool product', 'price' => 12.55, 'date_added' => '2012-01-11'),
           
101219 => array('label' => 'Meh product', 'price' => 3.69, 'date_added' => '2012-06-11'),
        );
    }
   
    public function
sort_by($by = 'price', $type = 'asc') {
        if (!
preg_match('/^(asc|desc)$/', $type)) $type = 'asc';
        switch (
$by) {
            case
'name':
               
$this->sort_field = 'label';
               
uasort($this->data, array('Product', 'string_'.$type));
            break;
            case
'date':
               
$this->sort_field = 'date_added';
               
uasort($this->data, array('Product', 'date_'.$type));
            break;
            default:
               
$this->sort_field = 'price';
               
uasort($this->data, array('Product', 'num_'.$type));
        }
    }
}

$product = new Product();
$product->get();
$product->sort_by('name');
echo
'<pre>'.print_r($product->data, true).'</pre>';
?>
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2
yeu_ym at yahoo dot com
3 years ago
Here is an example how to work with visiblity and conflicts.

<?php

trait A
{
    private function
smallTalk()
    {
        echo
'a';
    }

    private function
bigTalk()
    {
        echo
'A';
    }
}

trait
B
{
    private function
smallTalk()
    {
        echo
'b';
    }

    private function
bigTalk()
    {
        echo
'B';
    }
}

trait
C
{
    public function
smallTalk()
    {
        echo
'c';
    }

    public function
bigTalk()
    {
        echo
'C';
    }
}

class
Talker
{
    use
A, B, C {
       
//visibility for methods that will be involved in conflict resolution
       
B::smallTalk as public;
       
A::bigTalk as public;

       
//conflict resolution
       
B::smallTalk insteadof A, C;
       
A::bigTalk insteadof B, C;

       
//aliases with visibility change
       
B::bigTalk as public Btalk;
       
A::smallTalk as public asmalltalk;
       
       
//aliases only, methods already defined as public
       
C::bigTalk as Ctalk;
       
C::smallTalk as cmallstalk;
    }

}

(new
Talker)->bigTalk();//A
(new Talker)->Btalk();//B
(new Talker)->Ctalk();//C

(new Talker)->asmalltalk();//a
(new Talker)->smallTalk();//b
(new Talker)->cmallstalk();//c
up
2
katrinaelaine6 at gmail dot com
5 years ago
Adding to "atorich at gmail dot com":

The behavior of the magic constant __CLASS__ when used in traits is as expected if you understand traits and late static binding (http://php.net/manual/en/language.oop5.late-static-bindings.php).

<?php

$format
= 'Class: %-13s | get_class(): %-13s | get_called_class(): %-13s%s';

trait
TestTrait {
    public function
testMethod() {
        global
$format;
       
printf($format, __CLASS__, get_class(), get_called_class(), PHP_EOL);
    }
   
    public static function
testStatic() {
        global
$format;
       
printf($format, __CLASS__, get_class(), get_called_class(), PHP_EOL);
    }
}

trait
DuplicateTrait {
    public function
duplMethod() {
        global
$format;
       
printf($format, __CLASS__, get_class(), get_called_class(), PHP_EOL);
    }
   
    public static function
duplStatic() {
        global
$format;
       
printf($format, __CLASS__, get_class(), get_called_class(), PHP_EOL);
    }
}

abstract class
AbstractClass {
   
    use
DuplicateTrait;
   
    public function
absMethod() {
        global
$format;
       
printf($format, __CLASS__, get_class(), get_called_class(), PHP_EOL);
    }
   
    public static function
absStatic() {
        global
$format;
       
printf($format, __CLASS__, get_class(), get_called_class(), PHP_EOL);
    }
}

class
BaseClass extends AbstractClass {
    use
TestTrait;
}

class
TestClass extends BaseClass { }

$t = new TestClass();

$t->testMethod();
TestClass::testStatic();

$t->absMethod();
TestClass::absStatic();

$t->duplMethod();
TestClass::duplStatic();

?>

Will output:

Class: BaseClass     | get_class(): BaseClass     | get_called_class(): TestClass   
Class: BaseClass     | get_class(): BaseClass     | get_called_class(): TestClass   
Class: AbstractClass | get_class(): AbstractClass | get_called_class(): TestClass   
Class: AbstractClass | get_class(): AbstractClass | get_called_class(): TestClass   
Class: AbstractClass | get_class(): AbstractClass | get_called_class(): TestClass   
Class: AbstractClass | get_class(): AbstractClass | get_called_class(): TestClass

Since Traits are considered literal "copying/pasting" of code, it's clear how the methods defined in DuplicateTrait give the same results as the methods defined in AbstractClass.
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2
Carlos Alberto Bertholdo Carucce
6 years ago
If you want to resolve name conflicts and also change the visibility of a trait method, you'll need to declare both in the same line:

trait testTrait{
   
    public function test(){
        echo 'trait test';
    }
   
}

class myClass{
   
    use testTrait {
        testTrait::test as private testTraitF;
    }
   
    public function test(){
        echo 'class test';
        echo '<br/>';
        $this->testTraitF();
    }
   
}

$obj = new myClass();
$obj->test(); //prints both 'trait test' and 'class test'
$obj->testTraitF(); //The method is not accessible (Fatal error: Call to private method myClass::testTraitF() )
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4
Oddant
9 years ago
I think it's obvious to notice that using 'use' followed by the traits name must be seen as just copying/pasting lines of code into the place where they are used.
up
1
bscheshirwork at gmail dot com
5 years ago
https://3v4l.org/mFuQE

1. no deprecate if same-class-named method get from trait
2. replace same-named method ba to aa in C

trait ATrait {
    public function a(){
        return 'Aa';
    }
}

trait BTrait {
    public function a(){
        return 'Ba';
    }
}

class C {
    use ATrait{
        a as aa;
    }
    use BTrait{
        a as ba;
    }
   
    public function a() {
        return static::aa() . static::ba();
    }
}

$o = new C;
echo $o->a(), "\n";

class D {
    use ATrait{
        ATrait::a as aa;
    }
    use BTrait{
        BTrait::a as ba;
    }
   
    public function a() {
        return static::aa() . static::ba();
    }
}

$o = new D;
echo $o->a(), "\n";

class E {
    use ATrait{
        ATrait::a as aa;
        ATrait::a insteadof BTrait;
    }
    use BTrait{
        BTrait::a as ba;
    }
   
    public function e() {
        return static::aa() . static::ba();
    }
}

$o = new E;
echo $o->e(), "\n";

class F {
    use ATrait{
        a as aa;
    }
    use BTrait{
        a as ba;
    }
   
    public function f() {
        return static::aa() . static::ba();
    }
}

$o = new F;
echo $o->f(), "\n";

AaAa
AaBa

Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; E has a deprecated constructor in /in/mFuQE on line 48
AaBa

Fatal error: Trait method a has not been applied, because there are collisions with other trait methods on F in /in/mFuQE on line 65
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4
artur at webprojektant dot pl
10 years ago
Trait can not have the same name as class because it will  show: Fatal error: Cannot redeclare class
up
1
84td84 at gmail dot com
7 years ago
A note to 'Beispiel #9 Statische Variablen'. A trait can also have a static property:

trait Counter {
    static $trvar=1;

    public static function stfunc() {
        echo "Hello world!"
    }
}

class C1 {
    use Counter;
}

print "\nTRVAR: " . C1::$trvar . "\n";   //prints 1

$obj = new C1();
C1::stfunc();   //prints  Hello world!
$obj->stfunc();   //prints Hello world!

A static property (trvar) can only be accessed using the classname (C1).
But a static function (stfunc) can be accessed using the classname or the instance ($obj).
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