International PHP Conference Berlin 2023

クラスのオートローディング

オブジェクト指向アプリケーションを作成する開発者の多くは、 クラス定義毎に一つのPHPソースファイルを作成します。 最大の問題は、各スクリプトの先頭に、必要な読み込みを行う長いリストを 記述する必要があることです(各クラスについて一つ)。

spl_autoload_register() 関数を使うと、 任意の数のオートローダーを登録でき、 クラスやインターフェイスが定義されていなくても自動的に読み込めるようになります。 オートローダーを登録すれば、PHPがエラーで止まる前にクラスをロードする最後の チャンスが与えられます。

クラスに類似した言語構造は、同じやり方でオートロードできます。 これには、クラス、インターフェイス、トレイト、列挙型が含まれます。

警告

PHP 8.0.0 より前のバージョンでは、 __autoload() 関数でもクラスやインターフェイスのオートロードが可能でした。 しかし、この関数は spl_autoload_register() 関数に比べると柔軟性という点で劣っています。 そのため、__autoload() 関数は PHP 7.2.0 で推奨されなくなり、 PHP 8.0.0 で削除されました。

注意:

複数のオートローダーを複数回登録するために、 spl_autoload_register() を複数回コールしても構いません。 但し、オートロードを行う関数から例外がスローされると、 オートロードのプロセスが中断され、 後続のオートロード関数の実行ができなくなります。 よって、オートロード関数から例外をスローすることは、 全くお勧めできません。

例1 オートロードの例

この例は、 クラス MyClass1 および MyClass2 をそれぞれ MyClass1.php および MyClass2.php からロードします。

<?php
spl_autoload_register
(function ($class_name) {
    include 
$class_name '.php';
});

$obj  = new MyClass1();
$obj2 = new MyClass2();
?>

例2 オートロードの別の例

この例は、インターフェイス ITest をロードしようとします。

<?php

spl_autoload_register
(function ($name) {
    
var_dump($name);
});

class 
Foo implements ITest {
}

/*
string(5) "ITest"

Fatal error: Interface 'ITest' not found in ...
*/
?>

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User Contributed Notes 6 notes

up
95
jarret dot minkler at gmail dot com
13 years ago
You should not have to use require_once inside the autoloader, as if the class is not found it wouldn't be trying to look for it by using the autoloader.

Just use require(), which will be better on performance as well as it does not have to check if it is unique.
up
61
str at maphpia dot com
6 years ago
This is my autoloader for my PSR-4 clases. I prefer to use composer's autoloader, but this works for legacy projects that can't use composer.

<?php
/**
* Simple autoloader, so we don't need Composer just for this.
*/
class Autoloader
{
    public static function
register()
    {
       
spl_autoload_register(function ($class) {
           
$file = str_replace('\\', DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR, $class).'.php';
            if (
file_exists($file)) {
                require
$file;
                return
true;
            }
            return
false;
        });
    }
}
Autoloader::register();
up
4
info at atomosmaestoso dot com
5 months ago
Autoloading Classes with  spl_autoload_register() or spl_autoload() is the best and most modern way to securely code for API integration.

It restricts the various attacks that can be faced by using a "polyfill" or framework that is subject to data injection. Low level attacks, polyfill and framework vulnerabilities are some exploitations limited in using the core functionalities of your host programming language.

Your loop-holes and target endpoints are vastly removed to the level of programming experience of the developer - in not exposing the threats espoused to your programming language and its security protocols.

Each event you transfer data from one program to the next reveals another threat and another attack endpoint. When you are production, it is at this point composer and other tools that gather requirements specific secure integration should limit its use, such as PCI-DSS, HIPAA, or GDPR.

The use of a framework or polyfill gives an attacker hints at what point a function will access memory to produce intended results. Visiting the late L1-Cache Terminal Fault - attacks that use machine language to access memory and read what actually is happening will have all the details of what process is taking place and when.

Not to mention, when a product is open-source, the code is editable and easily compiled. Using access to machine level integrations a simply 10 second loss of time to process could well as infer the entire application has experienced an overhaul.

To deter this, and ensure maximum security for piece of mind and money-wise. The embedded resources of a programming language should be utilized at maximal capacity to prevent an overhaul on multiple endpoints. Visiting a system in use is not deletable or easily moved, removed or altered.
up
18
toi]n[enkayt[attaat]gmaal.com
2 years ago
Autoloading plain functions is not supported by PHP at the time of writing. There is however a simple way to trick the autoloader to do this. The only thing that is needed is that the autoloader finds the searched class (or any other autoloadable piece of code) from the files it goes through and the whole file will be included to the runtime.

Let's say you have a namespaced file for functions you wish to autoload. Simply adding a class of the same name to that file with a single constant property is enough to trigger the autoloader to seek for the file. Autoloading can then be triggered by accessing the constant property.

The constant could be replaced by any static property or method or by default constructor. However, I personally find a constant named 'load' elegant and informative. After all this is a workaround. Another thing to keep in mind is that this introduces an unnecessary class to the runtime. The benefit of this is that there is no need to manually include or require files containing functions by path which in turn makes code maintaining easier. Such behaviour makes it easier to alter the project structure since manual includes need not to be fixed. Only the autoloader needs to be able to locate the moved files which can be automated.

A code file containing functions.
/Some/Namespace/Functions.php
<?php
namespace Some\Namespace;

class
Functions { const load = 1; }

function
a () {
}

function
b () {
}
?>

Triggering autoloading of the file containing functions.
main.php
<?php
\Some\Namespace\Functions::load;

a ();
b ();
?>
up
12
Anonymous
12 years ago
It's worth to mention, if your operating system is case-sensitive you need to name your file with same case as in source code eg. MyClass.php instead of myclass.php
up
4
kalkamar at web dot de
14 years ago
Because static classes have no constructor I use this to initialize such classes.
The function init will (if available) be called when you first use the class.
The class must not be included before, otherwise the init-function wont be called as autoloading is not used.

<?php
function __autoload($class_name)
{
    require_once(
CLASSES_PATH.$class_name.'.cls.php');
    if(
method_exists($class_name,'init'))
       
call_user_func(array($class_name,'init'));
    return
true;
}
?>

I use it for example to establish the mysql-connection on demand.

It is also possilbe do add a destructor by adding this lines to the function:
<?php
if(method_exists($class_name,'destruct'))
   
register_shutdown_function(array($class_name,'destruct'));
?>
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