PHP 8.0.26 Released!

Fibers

Fibers overview

(PHP 8 >= 8.1.0)

Fibers represent full-stack, interruptible functions. Fibers may be suspended from anywhere in the call-stack, pausing execution within the fiber until the fiber is resumed at a later time.

Fibers pause the entire execution stack, so the direct caller of the function does not need to change how it invokes the function.

Execution may be interrupted anywhere in the call stack using Fiber::suspend() (that is, the call to Fiber::suspend() may be in a deeply nested function or not even exist at all).

Unlike stack-less Generators, each Fiber has its own call stack, allowing them to be paused within deeply nested function calls. A function declaring an interruption point (that is, calling Fiber::suspend()) need not change its return type, unlike a function using yield which must return a Generator instance.

Fibers can be suspended in any function call, including those called from within the PHP VM, such as functions provided to array_map() or methods called by foreach on an Iterator object.

Once suspended, execution of the fiber may be resumed with any value using Fiber::resume() or by throwing an exception into the fiber using Fiber::throw(). The value is returned (or exception thrown) from Fiber::suspend().

Nota: Due to current limitations it is not possible to switch fibers in the destructor of an object.

Exemplo #1 Basic usage

<?php
$fiber 
= new Fiber(function (): void {
   
$value Fiber::suspend('fiber');
   echo 
"Value used to resume fiber: "$valuePHP_EOL;
});

$value $fiber->start();

echo 
"Value from fiber suspending: "$valuePHP_EOL;

$fiber->resume('test');
?>

O exemplo acima irá imprimir:

Value from fiber suspending: fiber
Value used to resume fiber: test
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User Contributed Notes 6 notes

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29
user at csa dot es
6 months ago
Perhaps not using the same variable name everywhere will be a good idea

<?php
$fiber
= new Fiber(function (): void {
  
$parm = Fiber::suspend('fiber');
   echo
"Value used to resume fiber: ", $parm, PHP_EOL;
});

$res = $fiber->start();

echo
"Value from fiber suspending: ", $res, PHP_EOL;

$fiber->resume('test');
?>
up
18
Ali Madadi
4 months ago
Here is a simple scheduler and thread pool that implements multithreading using fibers and tick functions in PHP 8.1 and returns the return value of each function in the pool in an array at the end.

Note that due to some bugs, you need to register a new tick function for each "thread". Remember to unregister all of them at the end.

The link bellow is the discussion on a bug that is going on right now (At the time of writing this). Note that based on the discussion, the ability to call Fiber::suspend() inside tick function may become forbidden in PHP 8.2+. But if the bug gets fixed, you can move register_tick_function() line to the top of the class, and this simple multithreading class in pure PHP code will work like a charm.
https://github.com/php/php-src/issues/8960

<?php

declare(ticks=1);

class
Thread {
  protected static
$names = [];
  protected static
$fibers = [];
  protected static
$params = [];

  public static function
register(string|int $name, callable $callback, array $params)
  {
   
self::$names[]  = $name;
   
self::$fibers[] = new Fiber($callback);
   
self::$params[] = $params;
  }

  public static function
run() {
   
$output = [];

    while (
self::$fibers) {
      foreach (
self::$fibers as $i => $fiber) {
          try {
              if (!
$fiber->isStarted()) {
                 
// Register a new tick function for scheduling this fiber
                 
register_tick_function('Thread::scheduler');
                 
$fiber->start(...self::$params[$i]);
              } elseif (
$fiber->isTerminated()) {
                 
$output[self::$names[$i]] = $fiber->getReturn();
                  unset(
self::$fibers[$i]);
              } elseif (
$fiber->isSuspended()) {
               
$fiber->resume();
              }               
          } catch (
Throwable $e) {
             
$output[self::$names[$i]] = $e;
          }
      }
    }

    return
$output;
  }

  public static function
scheduler () {
    if(
Fiber::getCurrent() === null) {
      return;
    }

   
// running Fiber::suspend() in this if condition will prevent an infinite loop!
   
if(count(self::$fibers) > 1)
    {
     
Fiber::suspend();
    }
  }
}

?>

And here is an example code on how to use above Thread class:

<?php

// defining a non-blocking thread, so multiple calls will run in concurrent mode using above Thread class.
function thread (string $print, int $loop)
{
 
$i = $loop;
  while (
$i--){
    echo
$print;
  }

  return
"Thread '{$print}' finished after printing '{$print}' for {$loop} times!";
}

// registering 6 Threads (A, B, C, D, E, and F)
foreach(range('A', 'F') as $c) {
 
Thread::register($c, 'thread', [$c, rand(5, 20)]);
}

// run threads and wait until execution finishes
$outputs = Thread::run();

// print outputs
echo PHP_EOL, '-------------- RETURN VALUES --------------', PHP_EOL;
print_r($outputs);

?>

The output will be something like this (but probably different):

ABCDEFABCDEFABCDEFABCDEFABCDEFABCEFABFABFABEBEFBEFEFEFAABEABEBEFBEFFAAAAAA
-------------- RETURN VALUES --------------
Array
(
    [D] => Thread 'D' finished after printing 'D' for 5 times!
    [C] => Thread 'C' finished after printing 'C' for 6 times!
    [E] => Thread 'E' finished after printing 'E' for 15 times!
    [B] => Thread 'B' finished after printing 'B' for 15 times!
    [F] => Thread 'F' finished after printing 'F' for 15 times!
    [A] => Thread 'A' finished after printing 'A' for 18 times!
)
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11
maxpanchnko at gmail dot com
6 months ago
One of examples, how to make multi_curl faster twice (pseudocode) using Fibers:

<?php

$curlHandles
= [];
$urls = [
   
'https://example.com/1',
   
'https://example.com/2',
    ...
   
'https://example.com/1000',
];
$mh = curl_multi_init();
$mh_fiber = curl_multi_init();

$halfOfList = floor(count($urls) / 2);
foreach (
$urls as $index => $url) {
   
$ch = curl_init($url);
   
$curlHandles[] = $ch;

   
// half of urls will be run in background in fiber
   
$index > $halfOfList ? curl_multi_add_handle($mh_fiber, $ch) : curl_multi_add_handle($mh, $ch);
}

$fiber = new Fiber(function (CurlMultiHandle $mh) {
   
$still_running = null;
    do {
       
curl_multi_exec($mh, $still_running);
       
Fiber::suspend();
    } while (
$still_running);
});

// run curl multi exec in background while fiber is in suspend status
$fiber->start($mh_fiber);

$still_running = null;
do {
   
$status = curl_multi_exec($mh, $still_running);
} while (
$still_running);

do {
   
/**
     * at this moment curl in fiber already finished (maybe)
     * so we must refresh $still_running variable with one more cycle "do while" in fiber
     **/
   
$status_fiber = $fiber->resume();
} while (!
$fiber->isTerminated());

foreach (
$curlHandles as $index => $ch) {
   
$index > $halfOfList ? curl_multi_remove_handle($mh_fiber, $ch) : curl_multi_remove_handle($mh, $ch);
}
curl_multi_close($mh);
curl_multi_close($mh_fiber);
?>
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1
dvohra09 at yahoo dot com
1 month ago
Fiber::isRunning does not return a value
Sample
-------

<?php


$fiber
= new Fiber(function (): void {
$value = Fiber::suspend('suspend');
 
echo
"Fiber is resumed with value: ", $value, "\n";

});

echo
"Fiber not yet started.", "\n";

$value = $fiber->start();

echo
"Fiber is started: ", $fiber->isStarted(), "\n";
echo
"Fiber is suspended: ", $fiber->isSuspended(), "\n";

echo
"Fiber is running: ", $fiber->isRunning(), "\n";

echo
"Fiber is suspended with value: ", $value, "\n";
$fiber->resume('resume');

echo
"Fiber is running: ", $fiber->isRunning(), "\n";

?>
Output
---

Fiber not yet started. Fiber is started: 1 Fiber is suspended: 1 Fiber is running: Fiber is suspended with value: suspend Fiber is resumed with value: resume Fiber is running:
up
1
newuser
3 months ago
Example of the same functionality showing what is the difference between Fiber and Generator
<?php
$gener
= (function () use (&$gener): Generator {
   
$userfunc = function () use (&$gener) : Generator {
       
register_shutdown_function(function () use (&$gener) {
           
$gener->send('test');
        });
        return yield
'test';
    };
   
$parm = yield from $userfunc();
    echo
"Value used to resume fiber: ", $parm, PHP_EOL;
})();

$res = $gener->current();
echo
"Value from fiber suspending: ", $res, PHP_EOL;
?>
<?php
$fiber
= new Fiber(function () use (&$fiber) : void {
   
$userfunc = function () use (&$fiber) : string {
       
register_shutdown_function(function () use (&$fiber) {
           
$fiber->resume('test');
        });
        return
Fiber::suspend('fiber');
    };
   
$parm = $userfunc();
    echo
"Value used to resume fiber: ", $parm, PHP_EOL;
});

$res = $fiber->start();
echo
"Value from fiber suspending: ", $res, PHP_EOL;
?>
up
2
nesk at xakep dot ru
1 month ago
I think that in some cases it makes sense to convert a Fiber to a Generator (Coroutine) for convenience. In such cases, this code will be useful:

<?php
function fiber_to_coroutine(\Fiber $fiber): \Generator
{
   
$index = -1; // Note: Pre-increment is faster than post-increment.
   
$value = null;

   
// Allow an already running fiber.
   
if (!$fiber->isStarted()) {
       
$value = yield ++$index => $fiber->start();
    }

   
// A Fiber without suspends should return the result immediately.
   
if (!$fiber->isTerminated()) {
        while (
true) {
           
$value = $fiber->resume($value);

           
// The last call to "resume()" moves the execution of the
            // Fiber to the "return" stmt.
            //
            // So the "yield" is not needed. Skip this step and return
            // the result.
           
if ($fiber->isTerminated()) {
                break;
            }

           
$value = yield ++$index => $value;
        }
    }

    return
$fiber->getReturn();
}
?>
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