random_int

(PHP 7)

random_intGenerates cryptographically secure pseudo-random integers

Beschreibung

random_int ( int $min , int $max ) : int

Generates cryptographic random integers that are suitable for use where unbiased results are critical, such as when shuffling a deck of cards for a poker game.

Die Zufallsquellen, die für diese Funktion verwendet werden, sind folgende:

  • Unter Windows wird immer » CryptGenRandom() verwendet. Seit PHP 7.2.0 wird stattdessen immer » CNG-API verwendet.
  • Unter Linux wird der Syscall » getrandom(2) verwendet, wenn er verfügbar ist.
  • Auf anderen Plattformen wird /dev/urandom verwendet.
  • Ist keine der zuvor aufgezählten Quellen verfübar, wird ein Error geworfen.

Hinweis: Obwohl diese Funktion erst mit PHP 7.0.0 in PHP hinzugefügt wurde, gibt es » Userland-Implementierungen für PHP 5.2 bis einschließlich 5.6.

Parameter-Liste

min

The lowest value to be returned, which must be PHP_INT_MIN or higher.

max

The highest value to be returned, which must be less than or equal to PHP_INT_MAX.

Rückgabewerte

Returns a cryptographically secure random integer in the range min to max, inclusive.

Fehler/Exceptions

  • Wenn keine angemessene Quelle für Zufallszahlen verfügbar ist, wird eine Exception geworfen.
  • Werden ungültige Parameter übergeben, so wird ein TypeError geworfen.
  • If max is less than min, an Error will be thrown.

Beispiele

Beispiel #1 random_int() example

<?php
var_dump
(random_int(100999));
var_dump(random_int(-10000));
?>

Das oben gezeigte Beispiel erzeugt eine ähnliche Ausgabe wie:

int(248)
int(-898)

Siehe auch

  • random_bytes() - Generates cryptographically secure pseudo-random bytes
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User Contributed Notes 3 notes

up
21
s rotondo90 at gmail com
3 years ago
Here is a simple backporting function, it works for PHP >= 5.1

<?php
if (!function_exists('random_int')) {
    function
random_int($min, $max) {
        if (!
function_exists('mcrypt_create_iv')) {
           
trigger_error(
               
'mcrypt must be loaded for random_int to work',
               
E_USER_WARNING
           
);
            return
null;
        }
       
        if (!
is_int($min) || !is_int($max)) {
           
trigger_error('$min and $max must be integer values', E_USER_NOTICE);
           
$min = (int)$min;
           
$max = (int)$max;
        }
       
        if (
$min > $max) {
           
trigger_error('$max can\'t be lesser than $min', E_USER_WARNING);
            return
null;
        }
       
       
$range = $counter = $max - $min;
       
$bits = 1;
       
        while (
$counter >>= 1) {
            ++
$bits;
        }
       
       
$bytes = (int)max(ceil($bits/8), 1);
       
$bitmask = pow(2, $bits) - 1;

        if (
$bitmask >= PHP_INT_MAX) {
           
$bitmask = PHP_INT_MAX;
        }

        do {
           
$result = hexdec(
               
bin2hex(
                   
mcrypt_create_iv($bytes, MCRYPT_DEV_URANDOM)
                )
            ) &
$bitmask;
        } while (
$result > $range);

        return
$result + $min;
    }
}
?>

Randomness test

<?php
$max
= 100; // number of random values
$test = 1000000;

$array = array_fill(0, $max, 0);

for (
$i = 0; $i < $test; ++$i) {
    ++
$array[random_int(0, $max-1)];
}

function
arrayFormatResult(&$item) {
    global
$test, $max; // try to avoid this nowdays ;)
   
   
$perc = ($item/($test/$max))-1;
   
$item .= ' '. number_format($perc, 4, '.', '') .'%';
}

array_walk($array, 'arrayFormatResult');

print_r($array);
?>
up
2
ccb_bc at hotmail dot com
5 months ago
<?php
   
// PHP >= 7
   
function str_rand(int $length = 16){
       
$x = '';
        for(
$i = 1; $i <= $length; $i++){
           
$x .= dechex(random_int(0,255));
        }
        return
substr($x, 0, $length);
    }
   
var_dump(str_rand());
?>
up
-22
info at raymondrodgers dot com
3 years ago
This function is based on Andrew Moore's UUID generation function on the uniqid function; it has been updated to use random_int() on PHP 7.0 or later yet continue to function with earlier versions using mt_rand().

function generateUUIDv4()
{
    if(version_compare(PHP_VERSION,'7.0.0', '<') )
    {
        return sprintf('%04x%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x%04x%04x',
       
        // 32 bits for "time_low"
        mt_rand(0, 0xffff), mt_rand(0, 0xffff),
       
        // 16 bits for "time_mid"
        mt_rand(0, 0xffff),
       
        // 16 bits for "time_hi_and_version",
        // four most significant bits holds version number 4
        mt_rand(0, 0x0fff) | 0x4000,
       
        // 16 bits, 8 bits for "clk_seq_hi_res",
        // 8 bits for "clk_seq_low",
        // two most significant bits holds zero and one for variant DCE1.1
        mt_rand(0, 0x3fff) | 0x8000,
       
        // 48 bits for "node"
        mt_rand(0, 0xffff), mt_rand(0, 0xffff), mt_rand(0, 0xffff)
        );
    }
    else
    {
        return sprintf('%04x%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x%04x%04x',
       
        // 32 bits for "time_low"
        random_int(0, 0xffff), random_int(0, 0xffff),
       
        // 16 bits for "time_mid"
        random_int(0, 0xffff),
       
        // 16 bits for "time_hi_and_version",
        // four most significant bits holds version number 4
        random_int(0, 0x0fff) | 0x4000,
       
        // 16 bits, 8 bits for "clk_seq_hi_res",
        // 8 bits for "clk_seq_low",
        // two most significant bits holds zero and one for variant DCE1.1
        random_int(0, 0x3fff) | 0x8000,
       
        // 48 bits for "node"
        random_int(0, 0xffff), random_int(0, 0xffff), random_int(0, 0xffff)
        );
    }
}
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