mail

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7)

mailメールを送信する

説明

mail ( string $to , string $subject , string $message [, string $additional_headers [, string $additional_parameters ]] ) : bool

メールを送信します。

パラメータ

to

メールの受信者。

» RFC 2822 を満たす書式でなければ なりません。例えば以下のようなものです。

  • user@example.com
  • user@example.com, anotheruser@example.com
  • User <user@example.com>
  • User <user@example.com>, Another User <anotheruser@example.com>

subject

送信するメールの表題。

警告

表題は » RFC 2047 を満たすものでなければなりません。

message

送信するメッセージ。

改行コードは CRLF (\r\n) となります。各行の長さは 70 文字を超えては いけません。

警告

(Windows のみ)PHP が SMTP サーバーと直接通信をする際、ピリオドから 始まる行は無視されます。これを防ぐには、行頭のピリオドを ピリオド 2 つに置き換えてください。

<?php
$text 
str_replace("\n.""\n.."$text);
?>

additional_headers(オプション)

メールヘッダの最後に挿入される文字列。

通常、これは追加のヘッダ(From、Cc、Bcc)のために用いられます。 複数のヘッダを追加する場合は CRLF(\r\n)で区切ります。 外部からのデータを用いてヘッダを組み立てる際には、想定外のヘッダが注入されることを防ぐための処理が必要です。

注意:

additional_headers は、メールヘッダインジェクション対策を行っていません。 したがって、指定したヘッダが安全なものであり、ヘッダ以外のものを含まないようにするのはユーザー側の役目となります。 複数の改行文字を置くことでメール本文を始めたりしてはいけません。

注意:

メールを送信する際には、必ず From ヘッダが含まれていなければなりません。 additional_headers パラメータで指定するか、 あるいは php.ini にデフォルト値を指定します。

指定しなかった場合は、以下のようなエラーメッセージが返ります Warning: mail(): "sendmail_from" not set in php.ini or custom "From:" header missing 。 Windows では、From ヘッダを設定すると Return-Path も設定されます。

注意:

メッセージが受信されなかった場合には、LF(\n)のみを使ってみてください。 Unix の MTA の中には、自動的に LF を CRLF に変換してしまう もの (有名なところでは、» qmail など) があります(もし CRLF を利用していた場合、CR が重複してしまいます)。 ただし、これは最後の手段です。というのも、これは » RFC 2822 に違反しているからです。

additional_parameters(オプション)

パラメータ additional_parameters は、 追加のフラグをコマンドラインオプションとしてメール送信プログラムに渡す際に使用可能です。 メール送信プログラムは、設定オプション sendmail_path により設定されます。例えば、 sendmail を使用する際に -f オプションを使って エンベロープの sender アドレスを設定する際に使用できます。

このパラメータはコマンドの実行を防止するために内部的に escapeshellcmd() によってエスケープされます。 escapeshellcmd() はコマンドの実行を防止しますが、 別のパラメータを追加することは許してしまいます。セキュリティ上の理由から、 シェルコマンドへの望ましくないパラメータの追加を避けるために、 ユーザーはこのパラメータを適切に処理することが推奨されます。

escapeshellcmd() が自動的に適用されるため、 インターネット RFC でメールアドレスとして許可さているいくつかの文字を使用することができません。 mail() はそうした文字を許可しないため、プログラム中でそうした文字の使用が必須である場合、 メール送信の代替手段(フレームワークやライブラリの使用など)が推奨されます。

この方法でエンベロープの sender ヘッダ(-f)を設定する際は、 'X-Warning' ヘッダが付加されないように Web サーバーの実行ユーザーを sendmail 設定に追加しておく必要があるかもしれません。 sendmail を利用している場合、これは /etc/mail/trusted-users で設定します。

返り値

メール送信が受け入れられた場合に TRUE 、それ以外の場合に FALSE を返します。

メールの配送が受け入れられたかどうかが基準であることに注意しましょう。 メールが実際にあて先に届いたかどうかでは「ありません」。

変更履歴

バージョン 説明
4.2.3 safe_mode 時には additional_parameters パラメータを無効に しました。もし用いられた場合には mail() 関数は 警告メッセージを出して FALSE を返します。

例1 メールを送信する

mail() を用いて単純なメールを送信する。

<?php
// 本文
$message "Line 1\r\nLine 2\r\nLine 3";

// 1 行が 70 文字を超える場合のため、wordwrap() を用いる
$message wordwrap($message70"\r\n");

// 送信する
mail('caffeinated@example.com''My Subject'$message);
?>

例2 追加ヘッダを付加してメールを送信する

基本ヘッダに加え、MUA に From および Reply-To アドレスを通知する。

<?php
$to      
'nobody@example.com';
$subject 'the subject';
$message 'hello';
$headers 'From: webmaster@example.com' "\r\n" .
    
'Reply-To: webmaster@example.com' "\r\n" .
    
'X-Mailer: PHP/' phpversion();

mail($to$subject$message$headers);
?>

例3 追加ヘッダ及び追加コマンドラインパラメータを指定してメールを送信する

sendmail_path を用いてメールを送信する際に利用する 追加パラメータとして、additional_parameters が用いられます。

<?php
mail
('nobody@example.com''the subject''the message'null,
   
'-fwebmaster@example.com');
?>

例4 HTML メールを送信する

mail() を用いて HTML メールを送信することも可能です。

<?php
// 複数の受信者を指定
$to 'johny@example.com, sally@example.com'// カンマに注意

// 表題
$subject 'Birthday Reminders for August';

// 本文
$message '
<html>
<head>
  <title>Birthday Reminders for August</title>
</head>
<body>
  <p>Here are the birthdays upcoming in August!</p>
  <table>
    <tr>
      <th>Person</th><th>Day</th><th>Month</th><th>Year</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Johny</td><td>10th</td><td>August</td><td>1970</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Sally</td><td>17th</td><td>August</td><td>1973</td>
    </tr>
  </table>
</body>
</html>
'
;

// HTML メールを送信するには Content-type ヘッダが必須
$headers[] = 'MIME-Version: 1.0';
$headers[] = 'Content-type: text/html; charset=iso-8859-1';

// 追加のヘッダ
$headers[] = 'To: Mary <mary@example.com>, Kelly <kelly@example.com>';
$headers[] = 'From: Birthday Reminder <birthday@example.com>';
$headers[] = 'Cc: birthdayarchive@example.com';
$headers[] = 'Bcc: birthdaycheck@example.com';

// 送信する
mail($to$subject$messageimplode("\r\n"$headers));
?>

注意:

HTML などの複雑な形式のメールを送信する場合は、PEAR パッケージ » PEAR::Mail_Mime を利用することを推奨します。

注意

注意:

mail() の Windows 版実装は、Unix 版実装とは 多くの点で違います。 第一に、メッセージの生成にローカルのバイナリは使用せず、 ソケットを通じて直接操作するだけです。 これは MTA がネットワークソケットを listen している 必要があるということを意味します(ローカルホスト、リモートマシン どちらでもかまいません)。

第二に、 From:Cc:Bcc:Date: のようなカスタムヘッダは MTA ではなく PHP によってパースされます。

そのため、to 引数には "Something <someone@example.com>" 形式の メールアドレスを与えることはできません。 MTA と通信する際に mail コマンドはこれを適切にパースできません。

注意:

mail() 関数は、大量のメールをループ内で送信するには 向いていないことに注意しましょう。この関数は 1 通のメールを送信するたびに SMTP ソケットをいったん閉じて開きなおします。これは非効率的です。

大量のメールを送信する場合は、 » PEAR::Mail および » PEAR::Mail_Queue パッケージを参照ください。

注意:

以下の RFC も有用です。 » RFC 1896» RFC 2045» RFC 2046» RFC 2047» RFC 2048» RFC 2049 および » RFC 2822

参考

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 34 notes

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22
Anonymous
2 years ago
Security advice: Although it is not documented, for the parameters $to and $subject the mail() function changes at least \r and \n to space. So these parameters are safe against injection of additional headers. But you might want to check $to for commas as these separate multiple addresses and you might not want to send to more than one recipient.

The crucial part is the $additional_headers parameter. This parameter can't be cleaned by the mail() function. So it is up to you to prevent unwanted \r or \n to be inserted into the values you put in there. Otherwise you just created a potential spam distributor.
up
16
php at simoneast dot net
2 years ago
Often it's helpful to find the exact error message that is triggered by the mail() function. While the function doesn't provide an error directly, you can use error_get_last() when mail() returns false.

<?php
$success
= mail('example@example.com', 'My Subject', $message);
if (!
$success) {
   
$errorMessage = error_get_last()['message'];
}
?>

(Tested successfully on Windows which uses SMTP by default, but sendmail on Linux/OSX may not provide the same level of detail.)

Thanks to https://stackoverflow.com/a/20203870/195835
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7
charles dot fisher at arconic dot com
1 year ago
I migrated an application to a platform without a local transport agent (MTA). I did not want to configure an MTA, so I wrote this xxmail function to replace mail() with calls to a remote SMTP server. Hopefully it is of some use.

function xxmail($to, $subject, $body, $headers)
{
$smtp = stream_socket_client('tcp://smtp.yourmail.com:25', $eno, $estr, 30);

$B = 8192;
$c = "\r\n";
$s = 'myapp@someserver.com';

fwrite($smtp, 'helo ' . $_ENV['HOSTNAME'] . $c);
  $junk = fgets($smtp, $B);

// Envelope
fwrite($smtp, 'mail from: ' . $s . $c);
  $junk = fgets($smtp, $B);
fwrite($smtp, 'rcpt to: ' . $to . $c);
  $junk = fgets($smtp, $B);
fwrite($smtp, 'data' . $c);
  $junk = fgets($smtp, $B);

// Header
fwrite($smtp, 'To: ' . $to . $c);
if(strlen($subject)) fwrite($smtp, 'Subject: ' . $subject . $c);
if(strlen($headers)) fwrite($smtp, $headers); // Must be \r\n (delimited)
fwrite($smtp, $headers . $c);

// Body
if(strlen($body)) fwrite($smtp, $body . $c);
fwrite($smtp, $c . '.' . $c);
  $junk = fgets($smtp, $B);

// Close
fwrite($smtp, 'quit' . $c);
  $junk = fgets($smtp, $B);
fclose($smtp);
}
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4
Porjo
9 years ago
Make sure you enclose \r\n in double quotes (not single quotes!) so that PHP can translate that into the correct linefeed code
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2
chris at ocproducts dot com
2 years ago
The 'sendmail' executable which PHP uses on Linux/Mac (not Windows) expects "\n" as a line separator.

This executable is a standard, and emulated by other MTAs.

"\n" is confirmed required for qmail and postfix, probably also for sendmail and exim but I have not tested.

If you pass through using "\r\n" as a separator it may appear to work, but your email will be subtly corrupted and some middleware may break. It only works because some systems will clean up your mistake.

If you are implementing DKIM be very careful, as DKIM checks will fail (at least on popular validation tools) if you screw this up. DKIM must be calculated using "\r\n" but then you must switch it all to "\n" when using the PHP mail function.

On Windows, however, you should use "\r\n" because PHP is using SMTP in this situation, and hence the normal rules of the SMTP protocol (not the normal rules of Unix piping) apply.
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3
Ben Cooke
13 years ago
Note that there is a big difference between the behavior of this function on Windows systems vs. UNIX systems. On Windows it delivers directly to an SMTP server, while on a UNIX system it uses a local command to hand off to the system's own MTA.

The upshot of all this is that on a Windows system your  message and headers must use the standard line endings \r\n as prescribed by the email specs. On a UNIX system the MTA's "sendmail" interface assumes that recieved data will use UNIX line endings and will turn any \n to \r\n, so you must supply only \n to mail() on a UNIX system to avoid the MTA hypercorrecting to \r\r\n.

If you use plain old \n on a Windows system, some MTAs will get a little upset. qmail in particular will refuse outright to accept any message that has a lonely \n without an accompanying \r.
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2
pavel.lint at vk.com
7 years ago
Here's a small handy function I use to send email in UTF-8.

<?php
function mail_utf8($to, $from_user, $from_email,
                                            
$subject = '(No subject)', $message = '')
   {
     
$from_user = "=?UTF-8?B?".base64_encode($from_user)."?=";
     
$subject = "=?UTF-8?B?".base64_encode($subject)."?=";

     
$headers = "From: $from_user <$from_email>\r\n".
              
"MIME-Version: 1.0" . "\r\n" .
              
"Content-type: text/html; charset=UTF-8" . "\r\n";

     return
mail($to, $subject, $message, $headers);
   }
?>
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1
Anonymous
4 days ago
If you notice wrong displayed characters in the email it's because you need to properly set the Content-Type and the Charset in the headers of the email:

<?php
$headers
= 'Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8' . "\r\n";
?>

Mostly, UTF-8 is your best choice.

You can set custom headers with the fourth parameter of the mail() function.

To make the whole thing waterproof, add the following header too:

<?php
$headers
.= 'Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64' . "\r\n";
?>

Now you can use the combination of UTF-8 and Base64 to properly encode the subject line and the recipient name like this:

<?php
$subject
= '=?UTF-8?B?' . base64_encode('Test email with German Umlauts öäüß') . '?=';
$recipient = '=?UTF-8?B?' . base64_encode('Margret Müller') . '?= <recipient@domain.com>';
?>

And don't forget to Base64 encode the email message too:

<?php
$message
= base64_encode('This email contains German Umlauts öäüß.');
?>

All references are taken from:
https://dev.to/lutvit/how-to-make-the-php-mail-function-awesome-3cii
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1
ABOMB
7 years ago
I was having delivery issues from this function to Gmail, Yahoo, AOL, etc.  I used the notes here to figure that you need to be setting your Return-Path to a valid email to catch bounces.  There are two extra delivery gotchas on top of that:

1) The domain in the email used in the -f option in the php.ini sendmail parameter or in the mail() extra parameters field, needs to have a valid SPF record for the domain (in DNS as a "TXT" record type for sure and add an additional  "SPF" type record if possible).  Why? That's header field being used for spam checks.

2) You should also use a domain key or DKIM.  The trick here is that the domain key/DKIM is case sensitive!  I used Cpanel to create my domain key which automatically used all lowercase domain names in the key creation.  I found when  sending email and using a camel case "-f account@MyDomainHere.Com" option, my key was not accepted.  However it was accepted when I used "-f account@mydomainhere.com".

There are many other factors that can contribute to mail not getting to inboxes, including your own multiple failed testing attempts, so I suggest you consult each site's guidelines and don't ask me for help.  These are just the couple technical issues that helped my case.

I hope this saves someone some time and headaches...
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0
jim at jimbrooking dot net
3 years ago
I recently changed hosting companies and spent a day trying to see why an email script that had been working for years failed on the new server.

The answer was that the old hosting company's email server accepted multiple "CC:" lines in the additional headers string, and the new did not. Thus on the new server

...
$add_hdr .= "CC: " . $email1 . PHP_EOL;
$add_hdr .= "CC: " . $email2 . PHP_EOL;
...

did not work, but

...
$add_hdr .= "CC: " . $email1 . ", " . $email2 . PHP_EOL;
...

did work.

In both cases, PHP's mail() function returned no error, but until I placed both emails, comma-separated, in the same line I was getting the following error:

550 Messages should have one or no Cc headers, not 2.

Hope this helps someone.
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-1
Mark Simon
3 months ago
It is worth noting that you can set up a fake sendmail program using the sendmail_path directive in php.ini.

Despite the comment in that file, sendmail_path also works for Window. From https://www.php.net/manual/en/mail.configuration.php#ini.sendmail-path:

This directive works also under Windows. If set, smtp, smtp_port and sendmail_from are ignored and the specified command is executed.
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-1
rexlorenzo at gmail dot com
7 years ago
Be careful to not put extra spaces for the $headers variable.

For example, this didn't work on our servers:

$headers = "From: $from \r\n Bcc: $bcc \r\n";

But this did:

$headers = "From: $from\r\nBcc: $bcc\r\n";

Notice the removal of the spaces around the first \r\n.
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-2
eeeugeneee
2 years ago
Send mail with minimal requirements from email services.

<?php
    $encoding
= "utf-8";

   
// Preferences for Subject field
   
$subject_preferences = array(
       
"input-charset" => $encoding,
       
"output-charset" => $encoding,
       
"line-length" => 76,
       
"line-break-chars" => "\r\n"
   
);

   
// Mail header
   
$header = "Content-type: text/html; charset=".$encoding." \r\n";
   
$header .= "From: ".$from_name." <".$from_mail."> \r\n";
   
$header .= "MIME-Version: 1.0 \r\n";
   
$header .= "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit \r\n";
   
$header .= "Date: ".date("r (T)")." \r\n";
   
$header .= iconv_mime_encode("Subject", $mail_subject, $subject_preferences);

   
// Send mail
   
mail($mail_to, $mail_subject, $mail_message, $header);
?>
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-4
jimmytrojan009 at gmail dot com
3 years ago
I have tried many online tutorials to get mail() function working in windows, until i stumbled upon this website
http://php.codeindepth.com/php-sending-mail/

It really boils down to changing few directives in php.ini and sendmail.ini

Changes required in sendmail.ini

smtp_server=smtp.gmail.com
smtp_port=587
error_logfile=error.log
debug_logfile=debug.log
auth_username=your-gmail-id@gmail.com
auth_password=your-gmail-password
force_sender=your-gmail-id@gmail.com

Changes required in php.ini

SMTP=smtp.gmail.com
smtp_port=587
sendmail_from = your-gmail-id@gmail.com
sendmail_path = "\"C:\xampp\sendmail\sendmail.exe\" -t"
;sendmail_path = "C:\xampp\mailtodisk\mailtodisk.exe"
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-3
shuitest at gmail dot com
8 years ago
If you use mutt, do as below,

/usr/bin/mutt -s '$subject' -f /dev/null -e 'set copy=no' -e 'set from = "{$GLOBALS[cfg][email_from]}"' -a '$attach_file_full_path' '{$GLOBALS[cfg][email_to]}' </dev/null 2>&1;
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-4
Max AT
7 years ago
To define a mail sensitivity you have to put this line in the headers:

<?php
        $headers
= "MIME-Version: 1.0\n" ;
       
$headers .= "Content-Type: text/html; charset=\"iso-8859-1\"\n";

       
$headers .= "Sensitivity: Personal\n";

$status   = mail($to, $subject, $message,$headers);
?>

Possible Options:
Sensitivity: Normal, Personal, Private and Company-Confidential

These will be recognised and handled in Outlook, Thunderbird and others.
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-4
Systemx
9 years ago
Bare LFs in SMTP

Use This

<?php
// Fix any bare linefeeds in the message to make it RFC821 Compliant.
$message = preg_replace("#(?<!\r)\n#si", "\r\n", $message);
   
// Make sure there are no bare linefeeds in the headers
$headers = preg_replace('#(?<!\r)\n#si', "\r\n", $headers);
?>
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-6
richard at richard-sumilang dot com
11 years ago
If you are using the sendmail app from an exim package or something you don't really need to change the normal parameters PHP gives it (-t -i) as other posts described.

I just added "-f myemail@example.com" and it worked.

One thing that got me stuck for a few hours was trying to figure out why the return-path was set as the user (user running php) and not what I was setting it with the -f option then I later found at that in order to forcefully set the return-path the user account running the command must be in exim's trusted users configuration! It helps to add trusted_groups as well then everything works fine :)
- Richard Sumilang
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-3
chris at ocproducts dot com
2 years ago
Correction to my earlier note:

'"\n" is confirmed required for qmail and postfix, probably also for sendmail and exim but I have not tested.'

It only affects qmail.
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-10
Edward
10 years ago
Currently my hosting service is on Godaddy. When attempting to use the mail function without the fifth parameter containing "-f", my message headers would not work.

Whenever your message headers do not work, simply try using the fifth parameter:

<?php
mail
($to, $subject, $message, $headers, "-femail.address@example.com");
?>
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-8
Alex Jaspersen
12 years ago
For qmail users, I have written a function that talks directly to qmail-queue, rather than going through the sendmail wrapper used by mail(). Thus it allows more direct control over the message (for example, you can adapt the function to display "undisclosed recipients" in to the To: header). It also performs careful validation of the e-mail addresses passed to it, making it more difficult for spammers to exploit your scripts.

Please note that this function differs from the mail() function in that the from address must be passed as a _separate_ argument. It is automatically put into the message headers and _does not_ need to be included in $additional_headers.

$to can either be an array or a single address contained in a string.
$message should not contain any carriage return characters - only linefeeds.

No validation is performed on $additional_headers. This is mostly unnecessary because qmail will ignore any additional To: headers injected by a malicious user. However if you have some strange mail setup it might be a problem.

The function returns false if the message fails validation or is rejected by qmail-queue, and returns true on success.

<?php
function qmail_queue($to, $from, $subject, $message, $additional_headers = "")
{
   
// qmail-queue location and hostname used for Message-Id
   
$cmd = "/var/qmail/bin/qmail-queue";
   
$hostname = trim(file_get_contents("/var/qmail/control/me"));
   
   
// convert $to into an array
   
if(is_scalar($to))
       
$to = array($to);
   
   
// BEGIN VALIDATION
    // e-mail address validation
   
$e = "/^[-+\\.0-9=a-z_]+@([-0-9a-z]+\\.)+([0-9a-z]){2,4}$/i";
   
// from address
   
if(!preg_match($e, $from)) return false;
   
// to address(es)
   
foreach($to as $rcpt)
    {
        if(!
preg_match($e, $rcpt)) return false;
    }
   
   
// subject validation (only printable 7-bit ascii characters allowed)
    // needs to be adapted to allow for foreign languages with 8-bit characters
   
if(!preg_match("/^[\\040-\\176]+$/", $subject)) return false;
   
   
// END VALIDATION
   
    // open qmail-queue process
   
$dspec = array
    (
        array(
"pipe", "r"), // message descriptor
       
array("pipe", "r") // envelope descriptor
   
);
   
$pipes = array();
   
$proc = proc_open($cmd, $dspec, $pipes);
    if(!
is_resource($proc)) return false;
   
   
// write additional headers
   
if(!empty($additional_headers))
    {
       
fwrite($pipes[0], $additional_headers . "\n");
    }
   
   
// write to/from/subject/date/message-ID headers
   
fwrite($pipes[0], "To: " . $to[0]); // first recipient
   
for($i = 1; $i < sizeof($to); $i++) // additional recipients
   
{
       
fwrite($pipes[0], ", " . $to[$i]);
    }
   
fwrite($pipes[0], "\nSubject: " . $subject . "\n");
   
fwrite($pipes[0], "From: " . $from . "\n");
   
fwrite($pipes[0], "Message-Id: <" . md5(uniqid(microtime())) . "@" . $hostname . ">\n");
   
fwrite($pipes[0], "Date: " . date("r") . "\n\n");
   
fwrite($pipes[0], $message);
   
fwrite($pipes[0], "\n");
   
fclose($pipes[0]);
   
   
// write from address and recipients
   
fwrite($pipes[1], "F" . $from . "\0");
    foreach(
$to as $rcpt)
    {
       
fwrite($pipes[1], "T" . $rcpt . "\0");
    }
   
fwrite($pipes[1], "\0");
   
fclose($pipes[1]);
   
   
// return true on success.
   
return proc_close($proc) == 0;
}
?>
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ittasks at gmail dot com
6 years ago
When dealing with mail headers "\n" and "\r\n" *sometimes* makes a big difference.

Once our CentOs servers got re-installed, all headers like:

  $headers = "MIME-Version: 1.0\r\n";
  $headers.= "Content-type: text/html; charset=iso-8859-1\r\n";
...

became part of message body instead of headers

I was able to fixed this by replacing "\r\n" with just "\n"
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-9
msheldon at desertraven dot com
14 years ago
Just a comment on some of the examples, and as a note for those who may be unaware. The SMTP RFC 822 is VERY explicit in stating that \r\n is the ONLY acceptable line break format in the headers, though is a little vague about the message body. While many MTAs will deal with just \n, I've run accross plenty of them that will exhibit "interesting" behaviours when this happens. Those MTAs that are strict in compliance will definitely break when header lines are terminated with only \n. They will also most likely break if the body of the message contains more than 1000 consecutive characters without a \r\n.*

Note that RFC 821 is a little more clear in defining:
"line
      A a sequence of ASCII characters ending with a <CRLF>."

RFC 821 makes no distinction between header lines and message body lines, since both are actually transmitted during the DATA phase.

Bottom line, best practice is to be sure to convert any bare \n characters in the message to \r\n.

* "The maximum total length of a text line including the <CRLF> is 1000 characters" (RFC 821)
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-7
f dot touchard at laposte dot net
16 years ago
***Encoding plain text as quoted-printable in MIME email***

If you don't want to install IMAP and use imap_8bit() to encode plain text or html message as quoted-printable
(friendly french special characters encoding :-) in MIME email, try this function.
I haven't fully tested it ( like with microtime with long mails). I send html message as 7-bit, so I didn't try yet with html.
If you have good html practise, you don't really need to encode html as quote-printable as it only uses 7-bit chars.
F.Touchard

<?php
function qp_encoding($Message) {
   
   
/* Build (most polpular) Extended ASCII Char/Hex MAP (characters >127 & <255) */
   
for ($i=0; $i<127; $i++) {
       
$CharList[$i] = "/".chr($i+128)."/";
       
$HexList[$i] = "=".strtoupper(bin2hex(chr($i+128)));
    }

   
/* Encode equal sign & 8-bit characters as equal signs followed by their hexadecimal values */
   
$Message = str_replace("=", "=3D", $Message);
   
$Message = preg_replace($CharList, $HexList, $Message);

   
/* Lines longer than 76 characters (size limit for quoted-printable Content-Transfer-Encoding)
        will be cut after character 75 and an equals sign is appended to these lines. */
   
$MessageLines = split("\n", $Message);
   
$Message_qp = "";
    while(list(,
$Line) = each($MessageLines)) {
        if (
strlen($Line) > 75) {
           
$Pointer = 0;       
            while (
$Pointer <= strlen($Line)) {
               
$Offset = 0;
                if (
preg_match("/^=(3D|([8-9A-F]{1}[0-9A-F]{1}))$/", substr($Line, ($Pointer+73), 3))) $Offset=-2;
                if (
preg_match("/^=(3D|([8-9A-F]{1}[0-9A-F]{1}))$/", substr($Line, ($Pointer+74), 3))) $Offset=-1;
               
$Message_qp.= substr($Line, $Pointer, (75+$Offset))."=\n";
                if ((
strlen($Line) - ($Pointer+75)) <= 75) {               
                   
$Message_qp.= substr($Line, ($Pointer+75+$Offset))."\n";
                    break
1;
                }
               
$Pointer+= 75+$Offset;
            }
        } else {
           
$Message_qp.= $Line."\n";
        }
    }       
    return
$Message_qp;
}
?>
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bburch at bouncingpixel dot com
7 years ago
When using the PHP mail() function with IIS 6 on Windows Server 2003, check your "Relay" settings on the SMTP Virtual Server in IIS.  If you grant access to 127.0.0.1 and set then set your php.ini SMTP to the same IP address (along with setting the same port 25), you should have success in sending mail. 

I'm using PHP 5.3 and have had success with this configuration and did not have to define the "sendmail_from" setting in our php.ini file.
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-5
Paul
15 years ago
My mime multipart/alternative messages were going ok, until I switched to qmail with php .. after years of painfull searching, I came across this on the Life With Qmail 'Gotchas' section:

G.11. Carriage Return/Linefeed (CRLF) line breaks don't work

qmail-inject and other local injection mechanisms like sendmail don't work right when messages are injected with DOS-style carriage return/linefeed (CRLF) line breaks. Unlike Sendmail, qmail requires locally-injected messages to use Unix newlines (LF only). This is a common problem with PHP scripts.

So now, I can go back to sending emails with text AND html components :)
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php dot net at schrecktech dot com
14 years ago
When sending MIME email make sure you follow the documentation with the "70" characters per line...you may end up with missing characters...and that is really hard to track down...
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-12
yarik dot bohatsky at gmail dot com
7 years ago
If you want to send UTF-8 HTML letter you need to mention charset twice:

1) In message header:
<?php
$headers
.= 'Content-type: text/html; charset=utf-8' . "\r\n";
?>

2) In HTML header:
<?php
$message
= '
<html>
<head>
   <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
   <title>Fillon soutient à fond le retour d\'un Grand Prix de France</title>
</head>
<body>
   <p>Le Premier ministre François Fillon, passionné d\'automobile et pilote à ses heures, a apporté un soutien appuyé au retour d\'un Grand Prix de France au calendrier 2013 de la Formule 1, en faisant un passage-éclair vendredi sur le circuit Paul Ricard dans le Var.</p>
</body>
</html>
'
;

In this case Outlook will also "understand" that message is encoded using UTF-8.
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-10
shenyqwilliam
6 years ago
If you're sending a large attachment, you may encounter overflow problem.
AFAIK, two common limits could be responsible.

1. Postfix message size limit.
Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf . Change the value of "message_size_limit".

2. Apache memory size limit for scripts.
Edit /etc/php.ini . Change the value of "memory_limit".

//Then reload (or restart) Postfix and Apache.
//Empirically, sending 200MB attachment requires 500MB memory.

Be careful! Raising memory limits may cause unexpected consequences, and is hence deprecated.
Recommended alternatives include:
* Pack and split attachment into several emails.
* Only include a link to the file. The receiver can download it later.
* Use IMAP/POP3 server (e.g. Dovecot).
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martin dot farrow at versacloud dot com
7 years ago
I've noticed that on some versions of PHP occasionally mail() returns the empty string for success, rather than true or false. The empty string evaluates to false.

if you use constructs like

if ( mail( ... ) ){
  # do something here on success
}

this wont work consistently.

so you need code like

$ret=mail(....)

if ( $ret == '' || $ret ){
  # do something here
}

to get consistent results.
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molotster on google mail com
11 years ago
Note, that single line should not contain more than 78 character, but is not allowed to contain more than 998 characters.

The possible consequences are:
Over 78 - clients are allowed to display the message in a "harder to read" way.
Over 998 - clients and servers are allowed to drop the message or cause any buffer-limit error.

See:
http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc2822 part 2.1.1.
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debis at woh dot rr dot com
7 years ago
This is for Windows Server 2003, IIS 6.0 with SMTP virtual server.

The problem I had was not including init_set for the SMTP server, I thought the SMTP definition in the IIS SMTP virtual server configuration would work.  When I sent mail manually this was not an issue. 

Also, $mail_sent = @mail( $to, $subject, $message, $headers ); wouldn't work but $mail_sent = mail($to, $subject, $message, $headers); did.
Lack of date_default_timezone_set() only caused a warning because php guessed what it should be.

This worked:
<?php
$to     
= 'nobody@example.com';
$subject = 'the subject';
$message = 'hello';
$headers = 'From: webmaster@example.com' . "\r\n" .
   
'Reply-To: webmaster@example.com' . "\r\n" .
   
'X-Mailer: PHP/' . phpversion();
ini_set ( "SMTP", "smtp-server.example.com" );
date_default_timezone_set('America/New_York');

mail($to, $subject, $message, $headers);
?>

And just so you can troubleshoot, this worked when sending mail from the command line/manually. CLI worked even though the php code without the init_set function wouldn't work.

You will notice that the "rcpt to" and "to" fields appear redundant, but if both are not used, the delivered mail's "to" field will be blank/empty.

-------------------------------
telnet www.example.com 25
helo
mail from: webmaster@example.com
rcpt to: someone@example.com
data
to: someone@example.com
subject: test again to make sure

this is my message
.
quit
-----------------------------------
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Erich at gasboysnospam dot net
10 years ago
if your mail is failing (returns false) be aware that many servers are configured to kill mail going out with a bcc or cc header.

The ideal workaround is to use the smtp functions which servers allow because of its better audit trail. Alternatively call the mail function several times.

I've just spent about four hours trying to work out what I was doing wrong!!
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umangberi at gmail dot com
9 years ago
Outlook 2007 seemed to be a little finicky with me to have carriage returns in the headers. So any \r\n resulted in messages that had default apache messages sent over to me.

As soon as I removed \r from all of the headers, the script started working fine. Hope that helped.
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