CascadiaPHP 2024


(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

mkdirMakes directory


    string $directory,
    int $permissions = 0777,
    bool $recursive = false,
    ?resource $context = null
): bool

Attempts to create the directory specified by directory.



The directory path.


A URL can be used as a filename with this function if the fopen wrappers have been enabled. See fopen() for more details on how to specify the filename. See the Supported Protocols and Wrappers for links to information about what abilities the various wrappers have, notes on their usage, and information on any predefined variables they may provide.


The permissions are 0777 by default, which means the widest possible access. For more information on permissions, read the details on the chmod() page.


permissions is ignored on Windows.

Note that you probably want to specify the permissions as an octal number, which means it should have a leading zero. The permissions is also modified by the current umask, which you can change using umask().


If true, then any parent directories to the directory specified will also be created, with the same permissions.


A context stream resource.

Return Values

Returns true on success or false on failure.


If the directory to be created already exists, that is considered an error and false will still be returned. Use is_dir() or file_exists() to check if the directory already exists before trying to create it.


Emits an E_WARNING level error if the directory already exists.

Emits an E_WARNING level error if the relevant permissions prevent creating the directory.


Example #1 mkdir() example

("/path/to/my/dir", 0700);

Example #2 mkdir() using the recursive parameter

// Desired directory structure
$structure = './depth1/depth2/depth3/';

// To create the nested structure, the $recursive parameter
// to mkdir() must be specified.

if (!mkdir($structure, 0777, true)) {
'Failed to create directories...');

// ...

See Also

  • is_dir() - Tells whether the filename is a directory
  • rmdir() - Removes directory
  • umask() - Changes the current umask

add a note

User Contributed Notes 5 notes

jack dot sleight at gmail dot com
14 years ago
When using the recursive parameter bear in mind that if you're using chmod() after mkdir() to set the mode without it being modified by the value of uchar() you need to call chmod() on all created directories. ie:

('/test1/test2', 0777, true);
chmod('/test1/test2', 0777);

May result in "/test1/test2" having a mode of 0777 but "/test1" still having a mode of 0755 from the mkdir() call. You'd need to do:

('/test1/test2', 0777, true);
chmod('/test1', 0777);
chmod('/test1/test2', 0777);
aulbach at unter dot franken dot de
24 years ago
This is an annotation from Stig Bakken:

The mode on your directory is affected by your current umask. It will end
up having (<mkdir-mode> and (not <umask>)). If you want to create one
that is publicly readable, do something like this:

= umask(0);
mkdir('mydir', 0777); // or even 01777 so you get the sticky bit set
Protik Mukherjee
19 years ago
mkdir, file rw, permission related notes for Fedora 3////
If you are using Fedora 3 and are facing permission problems, better check if SElinux is enabled on ur system. It add an additional layer of security and as a result PHP cant write to the folder eventhough it has 777 permissions. It took me almost a week to deal with this!

If you are not sure google for SElinux or 'disabling SELinux' and it may be the cure! Best of luck!
julius - grantzau - c-o-m
13 years ago
Remember to use clearstatcache()

... when working with filesystem functions.

Otherwise, as an example, you can get an error creating a folder (using mkdir) just after deleting it (using rmdir).
chelidze dot givia at gmail dot com
11 months ago
When creating a file using mkdir() the default root will be the DocumentRoot (in XAMPP) itself.


If you use mkdir("myfile") in something.php, instead of creating the folder in includes, php will create it in the project folder
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