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Syntax

Constants can be defined using the const keyword, or by using the define()-function. While define() allows a constant to be defined to an arbitrary expression, the const keyword has restrictions as outlined in the next paragraph. Once a constant is defined, it can never be changed or undefined.

When using the const keyword, only scalar (bool, int, float and string) expressions and constant arrays containing only scalar expressions are accepted. It is possible to define constants as a resource, but it should be avoided, as it can cause unexpected results.

The value of a constant is accessed simply by specifying its name. Unlike variables, a constant is not prepended with a $. It is also possible to use the constant() function to read a constant's value if the constant's name is obtainned dynamically. Use get_defined_constants() to get a list of all defined constants.

Note: Constants and (global) variables are in a different namespace. This implies that for example TRUE and $TRUE are generally different.

If an undefined constant is used an Error is thrown. Prior to PHP 8.0.0, undefined constants would be interpreted as a bare word string, i.e. (CONSTANT vs "CONSTANT"). This fallback is deprecated as of PHP 7.2.0, and an error of level E_WARNING is issued when it happens. Prior to PHP 7.2.0, an error of level E_NOTICE has been issued instead. See also the manual entry on why $foo[bar] is wrong (unless bar is a constant). This does not apply to (fully) qualified constants, which will always raise a Error if undefined.

Note: To check if a constant is set, use the defined() function.

These are the differences between constants and variables:

  • Constants do not have a dollar sign ($) before them;
  • Constants may be defined and accessed anywhere without regard to variable scoping rules;
  • Constants may not be redefined or undefined once they have been set; and
  • Constants may only evaluate to scalar values or arrays.

Example #1 Defining Constants

<?php
define
("CONSTANT""Hello world.");
echo 
CONSTANT// outputs "Hello world."
echo Constant// Emits an Error: Undefined constant "Constant"
               // Prior to PHP 8.0.0, outputs "Constant" and issues a warning.
?>

Example #2 Defining Constants using the const keyword

<?php
// Simple scalar value
const CONSTANT 'Hello World';

echo 
CONSTANT;

// Scalar expression
const ANOTHER_CONST CONSTANT.'; Goodbye World';
echo 
ANOTHER_CONST;

const 
ANIMALS = array('dog''cat''bird');
echo 
ANIMALS[1]; // outputs "cat"

// Constant arrays
define('ANIMALS', array(
    
'dog',
    
'cat',
    
'bird'
));
echo 
ANIMALS[1]; // outputs "cat"
?>

Note:

As opposed to defining constants using define(), constants defined using the const keyword must be declared at the top-level scope because they are defined at compile-time. This means that they cannot be declared inside functions, loops, if statements or try/ catch blocks.

See Also

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User Contributed Notes 4 notes

up
12
login at (two)view dot de
3 years ago
Just a quick note:
From PHP7 on you can even define a multidimensional Array as Constant:

define('QUARTLIST',array('1. Quarter'=>array('jan','feb','mar'),'2.Quarter'=>array('may','jun','jul'));

does work as expected.
up
1
halfhearted13 at gmail dot com
3 months ago
Constants of constant :

<?php

const foo = hello;
const
bar = foo;
const
bd = bar;

echo
"bd = " .bd;   // Prints out: Hello

?>
up
-13
mh at hanft dot de
1 year ago
With PHP 5.6, multi-dimensional arrays are also possible if you use "const" instead of "define". So,

define('QUARTLIST',array('1. Quarter'=>array('jan','feb','mar'),'2.Quarter'=>array('may','jun','jul')));

won't work with PHP 5.6, but

const QUARTLIST=array('1. Quarter'=>array('jan','feb','mar'),'2.Quarter'=>array('may','jun','jul'));

will.
up
-8
privat at ulrich-kapp dot de
10 months ago
const ArrayFromTextfile = file("mytextfile.txt", FILE_IGNORE_NEW_LINES);

does not work, it throws an error:
Fatal error: Constant expression contains invalid operations in php shell code on line …

Instead use:

define ("ArrayFromTextfile", file("mytextfile.txt", FILE_IGNORE_NEW_LINES));

print_r(ArrayFromTextfile);

Result:
Array
(
    [0] ⇨ Line 1
    [1] ⇨ Line 2
    [2] ⇨ Line 3
    [3] => …
)
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