PHP 型の比較表

下記の表はPHPの比較演算子 の振る舞いについて、緩やかな場合と厳密な場合の両方について 例を示しています。この付録はマニュアルの 型の相互変換 にも関連しています。種々のユーザーコメントと » BlueShoesの働きの おかげです。

この表を活用する前に、型とその意味について理解しておく必要があります。 例えば、"42"文字列ですが 42整数です。 falseboolですが"false"文字列です。

注意:

HTMLフォームは整数、浮動小数点数、booleanを渡してはくれず、 文字列を渡します。文字が数値であるかどうか確認するには、 is_numeric()を使うとよいでしょう。

注意:

$xが定義されていない状態で単に if ($x)とするとE_NOTICE レベルのエラーが発生します。代わりに、empty()isset()を使うか、あるいは変数を初期化するように してください。

注意:

数値演算の結果が、定数 NAN で表される値になることがあります。 この値を他の値と比較すると、緩やかな比較および厳密な比較のいずれでも結果は false になります。 自分自身と比較した場合も含みますが、true と比較した場合は除きます。 (つまり NAN != NAN であり NAN !== NAN であるということです)。 結果が NAN になる演算の例には sqrt(-1)asin(2) そして acosh(0) があります。

PHP 関数による $x の比較
gettype() empty() is_null() isset() bool : if($x)
$x = ""; string true false true false
$x = null; NULL true true false false
var $x; NULL true true false false
$x が未定義 NULL true true false false
$x = []; array true false true false
$x = ['a', 'b']; array false false true true
$x = false; bool true false true false
$x = true; bool false false true true
$x = 1; int false false true true
$x = 42; int false false true true
$x = 0; int true false true false
$x = -1; int false false true true
$x = "1"; string false false true true
$x = "0"; string true false true false
$x = "-1"; string false false true true
$x = "php"; string false false true true
$x = "true"; string false false true true
$x = "false"; string false false true true

== による緩やかな比較
true false 1 0 -1 "1" "0" "-1" null [] "php" ""
true true false true false true true false true false false true false
false false true false true false false true false true true false true
1 true false true false false true false false false false false false
0 false true false true false false true false true false false* false*
-1 true false false false true false false true false false false false
"1" true false true false false true false false false false false false
"0" false true false true false false true false false false false false
"-1" true false false false true false false true false false false false
null false true false true false false false false true true false true
[] false true false false false false false false true true false false
"php" true false false false* false false false false false false true false
"" false true false false* false false false false true false false true
* PHP 8.0.0 より前のバージョンでは、true でした。

=== による厳密な比較
true false 1 0 -1 "1" "0" "-1" null [] "php" ""
true true false false false false false false false false false false false
false false true false false false false false false false false false false
1 false false true false false false false false false false false false
0 false false false true false false false false false false false false
-1 false false false false true false false false false false false false
"1" false false false false false true false false false false false false
"0" false false false false false false true false false false false false
"-1" false false false false false false false true false false false false
null false false false false false false false false true false false false
[] false false false false false false false false false true false false
"php" false false false false false false false false false false true false
"" false false false false false false false false false false false true

add a note

User Contributed Notes 8 notes

up
55
php at benizi dot com
14 years ago
It's interesting to note that 'empty()' and 'boolean : if($x)'
are paired as logical opposites, as are 'is_null()' and 'isset()'.
up
25
Jan
18 years ago
Note that php comparison is not transitive:

"php" == 0 => true
0 == null => true
null == "php" => false
up
24
frank
16 years ago
A comparison table for <=,<,=>,> would be nice...
Following are TRUE (tested PHP4&5):
NULL <= -1
NULL <= 0
NULL <= 1
!(NULL >= -1)
NULL >= 0
!(NULL >= 1)
That was a surprise for me (and it is not like SQL, I would like to have the option to have SQL semantics with NULL...).
up
2
Jeroen
11 months ago
Be aware of the difference between checking the *value* of an array item, and checking the *existence* of an array item:
<?php
$arr
= [
'x' => 0,
'y' => null,
];

isset(
$arr['x']); // true, same as isset(0)
isset($arr['y']); // false, same as isset(null)

array_key_exists('y', $arr); // true, though the value is null
array_key_exists('z', $arr); // false
up
10
edgar at goodforall dot eu
14 years ago
Some function to write out your own comparisson table in tsv format. Can be easily modified to add more testcases and/or binary functions. It will test all comparables against each other with all functions.

<?php
$funcs
= array(
/* Testing equality */
'eq' => '==',
'ne' => '!=',
'gt' => '>',
'lt' => '<',
'ne2' => '<>',
'lte' => '<=',
'gte' => '>=',
/* Testing identity */
'id' => '===',
'nid' => '!=='
);
class
Test {
protected
$a;
public
$b;
public function
__construct($a,$b){
$this->a = $a;
$this->b = $b;
}
public function
getab(){
return
$this->a.",". $this->b;
}

}
$tst1 = new Test(1,2);
$tst2 = new Test(1,2);
$tst3 = new Test(2,2);
$tst4 = new Test(1,1);

$arr1 = array(1,2,3);
$arr2 = array(2,3,4);
$arr3 = array('a','b','c','d');
$arr4 = array('a','b','c');
$arr5 = array();

$comp1 = array(
'ints' => array(-1,0,1,2),
'floats' => array(-1.1,0.0,1.1,2.0),
'string' => array('str', 'str1', '', '1'),
'bools' => array(true, false),
'null' => array(null),
'objects' => array($tst1,$tst2,$tst3,$tst4),
'arrays' => array($arr1, $arr2, $arr3, $arr4, $arr5)
);
$fbody = array();

foreach(
$funcs as $name => $op){
$fbody[$name] = create_function('$a,$b', 'return $a ' . $op . ' $b;');
}

$table = array(array('function', 'comp1', 'comp2', 'f comp1 comp2', 'type'));
/* Do comparisons */
$comp2 = array();
foreach(
$comp1 as $type => $val){
$comp2[$type] = $val;
}

foreach(
$comp1 as $key1 => $val1){
foreach(
$comp2 as $key2 => $val2){
addTableEntry($key1, $key2, $val1, $val2);
}
}
$out = '';
foreach(
$table as $row){
$out .= sprintf("%-20s\t%-20s\t%-20s\t%-20s\t%-20s\n", $row[0], $row[1], $row[2], $row[3], $row[4]);
}

print
$out;
exit;

function
addTableEntry($n1, $n2, $comp1, $comp2){
global
$table, $fbody;
foreach(
$fbody as $fname => $func){
foreach(
$comp1 as $val1){
foreach(
$comp2 as $val2){
$val = $func($val1,$val2);
$table[] = array($fname, gettype($val1) . ' => ' . sprintval($val1), gettype($val2) .' => ' . sprintval($val2), gettype($val) . ' => ' . sprintval($val), gettype($val1) . "-" . gettype($val2) . '-' . $fname);
}
}
}
}

function
sprintval($val){
if(
is_object($val)){
return
'object-' . $val->getab();
}
if(
is_array($val)){
return
implode(',', $val);
}
if(
is_bool($val)){
if(
$val){
return
'true';
}
return
'false';
}
return
strval($val);
}

?>
up
7
blue dot hirano at gmail dot com
9 years ago
The truth tables really ought to be colorized; they're very hard to read as they are right now (just big arrays of TRUE and FALSE).

Also, something to consider: clustering the values which compare similarly (like is done on qntm.org/equality) would make the table easier to read as well. (This can be done simply by hand by rearranging the order of headings to bring related values closer together).
up
3
jerryschwartz at comfortable dot com
18 years ago
In some languages, a boolean is promoted to an integer (with a value of 1 or -1, typically) if used in an expression with an integer. I found that PHP has it both ways:

If you add a boolean with a value of true to an integer with a value of 3, the result will be 4 (because the boolean is cast as an integer).

On the other hand, if you test a boolean with a value of true for equality with an integer with a value of three, the result will be true (because the integer is cast as a boolean).

Surprisingly, at first glance, if you use either < or > as the comparison operator the result is always false (again, because the integer as cast as a boolean, and true is neither greater nor less than true).
up
-1
mark at theanti dot social
6 years ago
There is also 0.0 which is not identical to 0.

$x = 0.0;
gettype($x); // double
empty($x); // true
is_null($x); //false
isset($x); // true
is_numeric($x); // true
$x ? true : false; // false
$x == 0; // true
$x == "0"; // true
$x == "0.0"; // true
$x == false; // true
$x == null; // true
$x === 0; // false
$x === false; // false
$x === null; // false
$x === "0"; // false
$x === "0.0"; // false
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