fnmatch

(PHP 4 >= 4.3.0, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

fnmatch用模式匹配文件名

说明

fnmatch(string $pattern, string $filename, int $flags = 0): bool

fnmatch() 检查传入的 filename 是否匹配给出的 shell 通配符 pattern

参数

pattern

要匹配的 pattern。通常,pattern 将包含匹配符,像 '?''*'

pattern 参数要使用的匹配符
匹配符 说明
? 问号将匹配任何单个字符。比如,模式 "file?.txt" 将匹配 "file1.txt""fileA.txt",但不会匹配 "file10.txt"
* 星号将匹配零或多个字符。例如 "foo*.xml" 将匹配 "foo.xml""foobar.xml"
[ ] 中括号用于创建 ASCII 码点范围或字符集。例如,模式 "index.php[45]" 将匹配 "index.php4""index.php5",但不会匹配 "index.phpt"。众所周知的范围是 [0-9][a-z][A-Z]。可以同时使用多个集合和范围,例如 [0-9a-zABC]
! 感叹号用于否定中括号内的字符。例如,"[!A-Z]*.html" 将匹配 "demo.html",但不会匹配 "Demo.html"
\ 反斜线用于转义特殊字符。例如 "Name\?" 将匹配 "Name?" ,但不会匹配 "Names"

filename

要检查的字符串。 此函数对于文件名尤其有用,但也可以用于普通的字符串。

普通用户可能习惯于 shell 模式或者至少在最简单的形式下使用 '?''*' 通配符, 因此在前端搜索表达式输入中,使用 fnmatch() 来代替 preg_match() 对于非编程用户更加方便。

flags

flags 值可以是下列 flag 的任意组合,并用位运算符 OR (|) 连接。

fnmatch() flag 列表
Flag 说明
FNM_NOESCAPE 禁用反斜线转义。
FNM_PATHNAME Slash in string only matches slash in the given pattern.
FNM_PERIOD Leading period in string must be exactly matched by period in the given pattern.
FNM_CASEFOLD Caseless match. Part of the GNU extension.

返回值

匹配则返回 true,否则返回 false

示例

示例 #1 用 shell 中的通配符模式匹配来检查颜色名称

<?php
if (fnmatch("*gr[ae]y", $color)) {
echo
"some form of gray ...";
}
?>

注释

警告

目前该函数无法在 Windows 或其它非 POSIX 兼容的系统上使用。

参见

add a note

User Contributed Notes 9 notes

up
12
me at rowanlewis dot com
13 years ago
Here's a definitive solution, which supports negative character classes and the four documented flags.

<?php

if (!function_exists('fnmatch')) {
define('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);

function
fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
return
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags);
}
}

function
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
$modifiers = null;
$transforms = array(
'\*' => '.*',
'\?' => '.',
'\[\!' => '[^',
'\[' => '[',
'\]' => ']',
'\.' => '\.',
'\\' => '\\\\'
);

// Forward slash in string must be in pattern:
if ($flags & FNM_PATHNAME) {
$transforms['\*'] = '[^/]*';
}

// Back slash should not be escaped:
if ($flags & FNM_NOESCAPE) {
unset(
$transforms['\\']);
}

// Perform case insensitive match:
if ($flags & FNM_CASEFOLD) {
$modifiers .= 'i';
}

// Period at start must be the same as pattern:
if ($flags & FNM_PERIOD) {
if (
strpos($string, '.') === 0 && strpos($pattern, '.') !== 0) return false;
}

$pattern = '#^'
. strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), $transforms)
.
'$#'
. $modifiers;

return (boolean)
preg_match($pattern, $string);
}

?>

This probably needs further testing, but it seems to function identically to the native fnmatch implementation.
up
0
bernd dot ebert at gmx dot net
11 years ago
There is a problem within the pcre_fnmatch-Function concerning backslashes. Those will be masked by preq_quote and ADDITONALLY by the strtr if FN_NOESCAPE is not set -> something like "*a(*" will finally result in "#^.*a\\(.*$#". Note the double backslash which effectively does NOT mask the "(" correctly.

Since preq_quote always matches a backslash I don't think that this'll work with using preg_quote at all.
up
0
Sinured
16 years ago
An addition to my previous note: My statement regarding the FNM_* constants was wrong. They are available on POSIX-compliant systems (in other words, if fnmatch() is defined).
up
0
jk at ricochetsolutions dot com
17 years ago
soywiz's function didnt seem to work for me, but this did.

<?php
if(!function_exists('fnmatch')) {

function
fnmatch($pattern, $string) {
return
preg_match("#^".strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.'))."$#i", $string);
}
// end

} // end if
?>
up
-1
Frederik Krautwald
17 years ago
soywiz's function still doesn't seem to work -- at least not with PHP 5.2.3 on Windows -- but jk's does.
up
-2
theboydanny at gmail dot com
16 years ago
About the windows compat functions below:
I needed fnmatch for a application that had to work on Windows, took a look here and tested both. Jk's works for me, soywiz didn't (on WinXPSP2, PHP 5.2.3).
The only difference between them is addcslashes (soywiz) instead of preg_quote (jk). They _should_ both work, but for some reason soywiz's didn't for me. So YMMV.
However, to make JK's fnmatch() work with the example in the documentation, you also have to strtr the [ and ] in $pattern.
<?php
$pattern
= strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.', '\[' => '[', '\]' => ']'));
?>
And thanks for the functions, guys.
up
-2
phlipping at yahoo dot com
20 years ago
you couls also try this function that I wrote before I found fnmatch:

function WildToReg($str)
{
$s = "";
for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($str); $i++)
{
$c = $str{$i};
if ($c =='?')
$s .= '.'; // any character
else if ($c == '*')
$s .= '.*'; // 0 or more any characters
else if ($c == '[' || $c == ']')
$s .= $c; // one of characters within []
else
$s .= '\\' . $c;
}
$s = '^' . $s . '$';

//trim redundant ^ or $
//eg ^.*\.txt$ matches exactly the same as \.txt$
if (substr($s,0,3) == "^.*")
$s = substr($s,3);
if (substr($s,-3,3) == ".*$")
$s = substr($s,0,-3);
return $s;
}

if (ereg(WildToReg("*.txt"), $fn))
print "$fn is a text file";
else
print "$fn is not a text file";
up
-5
Sinured
16 years ago
Possible flags (scratched out of fnmatch.h):
...::...

FNM_PATHNAME:
> Slash in $string only matches slash in $pattern.

FNM_PERIOD:
> Leading period in $string must be exactly matched by period in $pattern.

FNM_NOESCAPE:
> Disable backslash escaping.

FNM_NOSYS:
> Obsolescent.

FNM_FILE_NAME:
> Alias of FNM_PATHNAME.

FNM_LEADING_DIR:
> From fnmatch.h: /* Ignore `/...' after a match. */

FNM_CASEFOLD:
> Caseless match.

Since they’re appearing in file.c, but are not available in PHP, we’ll have to define them ourselves:
<?php
define
('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
// GNU extensions
define('FNM_FILE_NAME', FNM_PATHNAME);
define('FNM_LEADING_DIR', 8);
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
?>

I didn’t test any of these except casefold, which worked for me.
up
-14
bwilcock at gmail dot com
10 years ago
fnmatch is not 100% reliable. Bug 14185 is still open and may or may not have been patched.

In certain wildcard circumstance fnmatch("*needle*", $haystack, match) returns false intermittantly

However stripos or preg returns a "find".
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