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fprintf

(PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

fprintfWrite a formatted string to a stream

Description

fprintf(resource $stream, string $format, mixed ...$values): int

Write a string produced according to format to the stream resource specified by stream.

Parameters

stream

A file system pointer resource that is typically created using fopen().

format

The format string is composed of zero or more directives: ordinary characters (excluding %) that are copied directly to the result and conversion specifications, each of which results in fetching its own parameter.

A conversion specification follows this prototype: %[argnum$][flags][width][.precision]specifier.

Argnum

An integer followed by a dollar sign $, to specify which number argument to treat in the conversion.

Flags
Flag Description
- Left-justify within the given field width; Right justification is the default
+ Prefix positive numbers with a plus sign +; Default only negative are prefixed with a negative sign.
(space) Pads the result with spaces. This is the default.
0 Only left-pads numbers with zeros. With s specifiers this can also right-pad with zeros.
'(char) Pads the result with the character (char).

Width

Either an integer that says how many characters (minimum) this conversion should result in, or *. If * is used, then the width is supplied as an additional integer value preceding the one formatted by the specifier.

Precision

A period . optionally followed by either an integer or *, whose meaning depends on the specifier:

  • For e, E, f and F specifiers: this is the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point (by default, this is 6).
  • For g, G, h and H specifiers: this is the maximum number of significant digits to be printed.
  • For s specifier: it acts as a cutoff point, setting a maximum character limit to the string.

Note: If the period is specified without an explicit value for precision, 0 is assumed. If * is used, the precision is supplied as an additional integer value preceding the one formatted by the specifier.

Specifiers
Specifier Description
% A literal percent character. No argument is required.
b The argument is treated as an integer and presented as a binary number.
c The argument is treated as an integer and presented as the character with that ASCII.
d The argument is treated as an integer and presented as a (signed) decimal number.
e The argument is treated as scientific notation (e.g. 1.2e+2).
E Like the e specifier but uses uppercase letter (e.g. 1.2E+2).
f The argument is treated as a float and presented as a floating-point number (locale aware).
F The argument is treated as a float and presented as a floating-point number (non-locale aware).
g

General format.

Let P equal the precision if nonzero, 6 if the precision is omitted, or 1 if the precision is zero. Then, if a conversion with style E would have an exponent of X:

If P > X ≥ −4, the conversion is with style f and precision P − (X + 1). Otherwise, the conversion is with style e and precision P − 1.

G Like the g specifier but uses E and f.
h Like the g specifier but uses F. Available as of PHP 8.0.0.
H Like the g specifier but uses E and F. Available as of PHP 8.0.0.
o The argument is treated as an integer and presented as an octal number.
s The argument is treated and presented as a string.
u The argument is treated as an integer and presented as an unsigned decimal number.
x The argument is treated as an integer and presented as a hexadecimal number (with lowercase letters).
X The argument is treated as an integer and presented as a hexadecimal number (with uppercase letters).

Warning

The c type specifier ignores padding and width

Warning

Attempting to use a combination of the string and width specifiers with character sets that require more than one byte per character may result in unexpected results

Variables will be co-erced to a suitable type for the specifier:

Type Handling
Type Specifiers
string s
int d, u, c, o, x, X, b
float e, E, f, F, g, G, h, H

values

Return Values

Returns the length of the string written.

Errors/Exceptions

As of PHP 8.0.0, a ValueError is thrown if the number of arguments is zero. Prior to PHP 8.0.0, a E_WARNING was emitted instead.

As of PHP 8.0.0, a ValueError is thrown if [width] is less than zero or bigger than PHP_INT_MAX. Prior to PHP 8.0.0, a E_WARNING was emitted instead.

As of PHP 8.0.0, a ValueError is thrown if [precision] is less than zero or bigger than PHP_INT_MAX. Prior to PHP 8.0.0, a E_WARNING was emitted instead.

As of PHP 8.0.0, a ArgumentCountError is thrown when less arguments are given than required. Prior to PHP 8.0.0, false was returned and a E_WARNING emitted instead.

Changelog

Version Description
8.0.0 This function no longer returns false on failure.
8.0.0 Throw a ValueError if the number of arguments is zero; previously this function emitted a E_WARNING instead.
8.0.0 Throw a ValueError if [width] is less than zero or bigger than PHP_INT_MAX; previously this function emitted a E_WARNING instead.
8.0.0 Throw a ValueError if [precision] is less than zero or bigger than PHP_INT_MAX; previously this function emitted a E_WARNING instead.
8.0.0 Throw a ArgumentCountError when less arguments are given than required; previously this function emitted a E_WARNING instead.

Examples

Example #1 fprintf(): zero-padded integers

<?php
if (!($fp = fopen('date.txt', 'w'))) {
return;
}

fprintf($fp, "%04d-%02d-%02d", $year, $month, $day);
// will write the formatted ISO date to date.txt
?>

Example #2 fprintf(): formatting currency

<?php
if (!($fp = fopen('currency.txt', 'w'))) {
return;
}

$money1 = 68.75;
$money2 = 54.35;
$money = $money1 + $money2;
// echo $money will output "123.1";
$len = fprintf($fp, '%01.2f', $money);
// will write "123.10" to currency.txt

echo "wrote $len bytes to currency.txt";
// use the return value of fprintf to determine how many bytes we wrote
?>

See Also

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User Contributed Notes 1 note

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Julien MOREAU
2 years ago
If you use the command line interface (CLI SAPI), you may be interested by the 3 standard input/output streams (STDIN, STDOUT & STDERR) described at: https://www.php.net/manual/en/features.commandline.io-streams.php
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